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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 2 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1=10)
Name one racial group of India.
What is formal demography?
Formal demography is primarily concerned with the measurement and analysis of the components of population change. Its focus is on quantitative analysis for which it has a highly developed mathematical methodology suitable for forecasting population growth and changes in the composition of population.
What is Social capital?
Social capital is in the form of networks of contacts and social associations. Someone with influential relatives and friends (social capital) may through access to good advice, recommendations or information manage to get a well-paid job.
Who advocated the policy of Tribal Panchasheela?
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
Who is the author of ‘Remembered Village’?
Which article of the Indian Constitution abolishes untouchability?
Who called joint family as a ‘Greater Home’?
Mention any one problem of village community.
Mention the author of the book ‘The Wealth of Nations’.
Who has conducted a study on Dhorai Tribal Market?
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
What is Demographic Dividend?
Demographic dividend refers to demographic or population advantage which is obtained due to numerical domination of the young people in the population. It is an advantage due to less dependency ratio.
Mention any two changes in caste system.
Occupational and food restrictions are relaxed
Mention the two tribal zones in India.
- North and North Eastern Tribal zone and
- Central tribal zone.
Mention any two objectives of ‘Towards Equality Report – 1974’.
Objectives of the Towards Equality Report -1974 are the following:
1. To examine the Constitutional, legal, and administrative provisions that have a bearing on the social status of women, their education and employment.
2. To assess the impact of these provisions during the last two decades on the status of women in the country, particularly in the rural sector and to suggest more effective programs.
What is self help group?
A Self-help Group comprises a group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic backgrounds, all voluntarily coming together to save regularly small sums of money, mutually agreeing to contribute to a common fund and to meet their emergency needs from that fund on the basis of mutual help”.
What do you mean by Social Exclusion?
Social exclusion refers to ways in which individuals may become cut off from full involvement in the wider society.
Mention any two objectives of Stree shakhti.
1. To strengthen the process of economic development of rural women and create a conducive environment for social change.
2. To form self help groups based on thrift and credit principles which builds self reliance and enable women to have greater access and control over resources.
Mention the types of Joint Family.
Matriarchal joint family and patriarchal joint family.
Mention any two objectives of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme.
It- guarantees generating productive assets, protecting the environment, empowering rural women, reducing rural-urban migration and fostering social equity. Under this programme, all permissible works like water conservation, water harvesting, drought proofing, afforestation, irrigation works, restoration of traditional water bodies, land development, flood control, rural connectivity and works notified by the government are included.
What is Mass Media?
Mass Media is a means of communication that can reach a large number of people in a short time. The mass media includes a wide variety of forms like Newspapers, Magazines, Radio, Television and Social Networking sites.
Mention any two women’s organizations in India.
Stree Mukthi Sanghatana, Mumbai and Vimochana, Bengaluru.
Mention New components of social movement.
In the context of the emergence of new social movements, the issues of values, culture, subjectivity, idealism, morality, identity, empowerment, etc., have got new coinage. Thus Bertaux adds the view that ‘subjectivity’ and ‘idealism’ are essential elements of social movement.
These are closely attached to the process of collective mobilization and new identity formation. Change in the form of these components brings tremendous change in the character of the social movements, and accordingly p social movements may also be categorized.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences, each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the racial groups classified by Dr B.S. Guha.
B.S.Guha has identified six major racial elements in the population of India:
- Western Brachycephals and
In the south, the Kadars, the Irulas, and the Paniyans, and in the Andaman Islands the Onges, Jarwas and the great Andamanese have definite Negrito characteristics. Some traits of this group are found among the Angami Nagas and the Bagadis of the Rajmahal hills. On the western coast there are some groups with pronounced Negrito traits, but they perhaps represent later arrivals, who came to India with the Arab traders.
The Proto-Australoid group is numerically more significant; most of the tribes of middle India belong to it. These were the people described by the Indo-Aryans as Anas, Dasa, Dasyu, and Nishad – all derogatory terms. The Mongoloid group is sub-divided into two branches – Paleo-Mongoloid and Tibeto-Mongoloid.
Tribal groups in the Himalayan region and those in the north-east are of Mongoloid stock. Some Mongoloid features are seen in the non-tribal population of the eastern States – Assam, West Bengal, Manipur, and Tripura.
The Western Brachycephals (sub-divided into the Alpinoid, Dinaric, and Armenoid groups), Alpinoid and Dinaric characteristics are seen in some groups of northern and western India; the Parsis belong to the Armenoid section. The Mediterraneans are associated with Dravidian languages and cultures.
The Nordics were the last major ethnic element to arrive in India and make a profound impact on its culture and society. But before they came a unique civilization had slowly developed in India. It is known as the Indus Valiev Civilization.
Explain the nature of dominant caste.
M.N. Srinivas introduces the concept of “Dominant Castes” which is of great help in understanding inter-caste relations and conflicts in Indian society. According to him “A caste is dominant when it preponderates numerically over the other castes, when it also wields preponderant economic and political power, and when it enjoys a high ritual status in local caste hierarchy”.
1. Nature of Dominant Castes:
a. Determinants of Dominance:
A dominant caste should own a sizeable amount of the land and it should enjoy greater economic and political power. In addition to this, a number of educated persons being found in the caste and the nature of high occupation people pursue in the caste, add to the dominant caste. When a caste enjoys all the elements of dominance, i .e. numerical strength, economic and political power, high ritual status, it is said to be dominant in a decisive way.
b. Distribution of Dominance:
Different elements of dominance are distributed differently among different castes in a village. For example, a caste, which is numerically high, may be poor and lacking in political power, while a ritually high status caste may be rich economically and lacking strength in numbers. It can also be said that when a caste enjoys one form of dominance, it is frequently able to acquire other form of dominance.
c. Dominance is not purely a local phenomenon:
As M.N. Srinivas says, in Rural India dominance is purely a local matter. A caste group, which has only a family or two in a particular village, may enjoy decisive dominance in the wider region. Because the caste members of these families maintain a network of ties with the dominant relatives found in the wider region.
d. New factors affecting Dominance of Caste:
According to M.N. Srinivas, western education, jobs in the administration and urban sources of income are also significant in contributing to the prestige and power of particular caste groups in the village.
e. Dominant Caste at the State Levels:
Lingayats and Vokkaligas in Karnataka, Reddy s and Kammas in Andhra Pradesh, Nairs and Ezhavas in Kerala, Gounder, Padayachi and Mudaliars in Tamil Nadu, Marathas, Brahmins and Mahars in Maharashtra, Rajputs, Jats, Takurs, Gujars, Baniyas, Bhoomihars etc., in the N ith Indian states form the dominant castes in those regions.
List out the strategies for women empowerment.
The strategies for empowerment of women can be classified as legal, social and economic.
1. Legal Strategies:
After Independence, several laws were drafted with the aim to treat women on par with men. Some of the legislation are as follows:
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955
- Hindu Succession Act of 1956.
- Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956.
- Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act of 1984
- Domestic Violence Act 2005 etc.
2. Social Strategies:
Social strategies are as follows:
- Establishment of Women Welfare Services.
- Legal literacy of women through mass media.
- Help of neighbours to be sought in the cases of abused women.
- Conducting public education and awareness programmes in order to help women.
- Males are also to be educated to realize their new roles in the changed times and the necessity of their own contribution to family life.
3. Economic Strategies:
Economic strategies are as follows:
- Educational and vocational training for women which will enable them to seek jobs and become economically dependent.
- Technological aids that will be labour saving devices and will lighten women’s burden, of heavy daily tasks.
- Training for women in both formal and non-formal education.
- Credit facilities to start small-scale industries/self-employment.
- Programmes of placing women in CM important positions at various levels.
Explain the causes of changes in joint family.
With the establishment of factories in many places of the country, agriculture was pushed to the background and with it changed those social institutions which were its products. The industrial centers pulled persons out of the traditional peasant society comprising of joint families. his strike at the roots of joint families and the process of change started. Furthermore, the process of change in joint family gained momentum from the rapid development of transport and communication.
The percentage of workers dependent on agriculture has come down and more and more people migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs. The urban centers also provide people with various amenities of life concerning transport and communication, sanitation and health, education and employment, etc., People are tempted by the lure of urban facilities and there is a rural to urban type of migration. Gradually joint family hold is losing its control and nuclear families in cities have become the norm.
3. Rapid Growth of Population:
Rapid growth of population has brought corresponding increase of pressure on land. Agriculture being the prime occupation of the villagers, the rural youth face the problem of unemployment. People have begun to move to cities and industrial centers in search of jobs. Thus they had to leave the traditional joint families which has resulted in the breakdown of jointness.
Education changes the attitude of people. It enables people to get into various better paying jobs or professions. Modern education leads to occupational mobility. It has not only brought changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideologies of the people but has also created the individualistic feelings. The increasing education not only brings changes in the philosophy of life of men and women but also provides new avenues of employment leading to economic independence.
5. Changing Status of Women:
Social reform movements and awareness among the women of their own position, all these have affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family system. The spread of modern education has enlightened women. Education has made them conscious of their rights and status in society. It has brought about drastic changes in the practices and ideals of family.
They are no longer prepared to remain within the four walls of the household in the traditional subordinate position. Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshab Chandra Sen, Jyothiba Phule, Maharshi Karve, Pandit Ramabai and many others have worked and achieved considerable success to the cause of women. All these factors affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family. As a sequel to that, the process of disintegration has set in the joint family system.
6. Social Legislations:
Legislation enacted during the British rule proved harmful for joint family. Gains of Learning Act of 1930, the Rights of Women to share in the property of the joint family by the Hindu Law of Inheritance Act of 1929, and the Hindu women’s Right to Property Act of 1937. SatiPrevention Act 1782, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1902 have brought changes in family relations. After independence, the process has continued and fundamental changes in the law of inheritance have been brought about by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956.
The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Civil Marriage Act, 1957 gave the freedom to adult males and females to many according to their choice and helped the women to seek divorce on certain grounds. All these. legislations gave enough facility to the members to divide the joint family immediately after the death of the father. The necessity of jointness has also weakened due to various governmental provisions relating to old age pension, widow pension etc.
Explain the importance of village studies.
Importance of village studies are summarized
1. Field Work is an Antidote to Book View:
According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.
M.N.Srinivas undertook a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to high lighting that the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. He has recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work ‘Remembered Village’.
2. Calculated opposition to change:
Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only a few changes.
Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and so on.
There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.
3. Literary Bias:
Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact as through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.
Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view’ may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.
4. Recording for later evaluation:
Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.
5. Development of Analytical Categories: The study of Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labeled either locally or on an all India basis.
For instance, analytical models like Sanskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De-Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.
6. Village Studies are important for Social Reformation:
Prof. Ramakrishna Mukher- jee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers, and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is the need for the study of village communities in India.
Write a short note on Other Backward class (OBCs).
Other Backward castes/classes have been suffering from a number of problems since a long time. The problems, which are common to all OBCs are as follows
1. Other Backward Castes (Classes) constitute an Indefinite, Abstract and Unorganized Category:
First Backward Class Commission known as Kalalker Commission was appointed to prepare a list of communities. Kalalker’s report had listed 2399 castes as backward castes which the then Government had rejected. The Mandal Commission (Second Backward Class Commission) listed 3743 castes and communities as Backward classes. Most of the OBC communities are strangers to one another.
They do not have common awareness regarding their own problems. Conflicts do arise among themselves regarding the issue of ‘Backwardness’. No single All-India level organization has been established. These groups are scattered all over India and exhibit a lot of diversities and it is difficult to unite them.
2. Economic Backwardness:
Most of the OBCs are also economically backward like SCs and STs. A large number of poor, unemployed, under-employed are found in this category. Only a few people are self employed, but majority of them are working for very low wages. Sizable numbers are economically exploited.
3. Educational and Social Backwardness: Illiterates are found in a large number m this category. Higher education among OBCs is at a very low level. Even though OBCs are not directly the victims of untouchability, but lot of social distance prevails between these and the so called forward castes.
4. Politically unorganized:
OBCs are comparatively unorganized Because OBCs do not comprise a single caste. Most of these castes are spread across the nation. No single backward caste is numerically dominant in any one province. Hence they are not able to work as powerful ‘Pressure Groups’ at all India level.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain briefly the Demographic profile of Karnataka.
According to the 2001 census, Karnataka with an area of 1,91,791 sq. km. has a population of 52,850,562 with 26,898,918 males and 25,951,644 females. According to the 2011 Census, the population of Karnataka has increased to 6,10,95,297 (Males-3,09,66,657; Females- 3,01,28,640) with a sex ratio of 973 females for every 1000 males. Karnataka retains the ninth rank as in 2001, in population among the States and accounts for 5.05 percent of the country’s population.
1. Rural – Urban population in Karnataka:
Among the districts within the State, f Bengaluru District is the most populated District with 96,21,551 persons and accounts for 15.75 percent of the State’s total population while Kodagu District with a population share of 0.91 percent is the least populated District.
In terms of percentage, 61.33 percent are Rural residents and 38.67 percent are Urban residents. In terms of urbanization, the State has witnessed an increase of 4.68 percent in the proportion of Urban population in the last decade. Among the districts, Bengaluru is the most urbanized District followed by Dharwad District, Dakshina Kannada District and Mysuru District. The least urbanized District in the State is Kodagu preceded by Koppal District.
Among the districts, Bengaluru District, has witnessed the highest decennial growth rate of 47.18 percent followed by Yadgir, the newly created District, with 22.81 percent. Chikkamagaluru District, a predominantly plantation area in the Malnad region, is the only District in the State which has registered a negative growth rate of -0.26 percent. Kodagu District another plantation area in the Malnad region with a growth rate of 1.09 percent ranks 29 Just above Chikkamagaluru District.
2. Sex Ratio in Karnataka:
The Sex Ratio in Karnataka has increased from 965 in 2001 to 973 in 2011. The Sex Ratio for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe population is identical at 990 and is significantly higher than that, of the State. Among the districts, the highest overall Sex Ratio of 1094 is recorded in Udupi District and the lowest of 916 is recorded in Bangalore District. Female population is higher than male population in Chikmagalur, Kodagu (1019), Hassan, (1012) Dakshina Kannada (1020) and Udupi (1094). Inspite of favourable Sex Ratio, it has declined in Udupi (-36) and Dakshina Kannada (2).
3. Population Density in Karnataka:
According to 2001 census, Bengaluru Urban District has registered the highest density of 2,985 persons per sq. km and the lowest density per sq.km, was recorded in Kodagu (134) and Uttara Kannada (132) districts. The density of population of the state was 319 in 2011 as against 276 in 2001. The density of population of Bengaluru metropolitan city was 4,378 in 2011 as against to 2985 in 2001. Uttara Kannada (140) and Kodagu (135) have the lowest density of population in the State.
4. Scheduled caste population in Karnataka:
The Scheduled Caste population in the State has increased from 85,63,930 in 2001 to 1,04,74,992, in 2011, registering a decennial growth rate of22.32 percent. The Scheduled Caste population constitutes 17.15 percent of the total population of the State. The highest proportion of Scheduled Caste population is returned from Kolar District with 30.32 percent, followed by Chamarajanagar District with 25.42 percent. The least proportion of Scheduled Caste population is recorded in the coastal district of Udupi (6.43 percent) District.
5. Scheduled Tribe population in Karnataka:
The Scheduled Tribe population in the state has increased from 34,63,986 in 2001 Census to 42,48,987 in 2011, registering a decennial growth rate of 22.66 percent. The proportion of the Scheduled Tribe population to total population of the State is 6.95 percent. The highest proportion of Scheduled Tribe population is in Raichur District (19.03 percent) and the least proportion is returned from Mandya District (1.24 percent).
6. Literacy rate in Karnataka:
Literacy rate of the State has increased from 66.64 percent in 2001 to 75.36 percent 2011. While the male literacy has increased from 76.10 percent to 82.47 percent, the female literacy rate has increased from 56.87 percent to 68.08 percent.
Among the districts, Dakshina Kannada t District with overall Literacy rate of 88.57 percent retains its top position, closely followed by Bengaluru District (87.67 percent) and Udupi District (86.24 percent). The lowest overall Literacy rate of 51.83 percent is recorded in the newly created Yadgir District, preceded by Raichur District which has recorded 59.56 percent.
Explain the problems of Indian tribes.
The problems of Tribals are as follows:
1. Geographical Isolation:
Tribals are the people who have been living in remote areas and hill tracks, without any access to socio¬economic inputs. For centuries, tribals were isolated from the rest of the community, which has also given them wide cultural variations. Their geographical isolation from the mainstream deprived them the chances for progress.
2. Cultural Problems:
At present due to contact with outsiders, the tribal culture is undergoing a change. It has led to the degeneration of Tribal life and Tribal arts such as their dance, music and different types of crafts. In several tribal areas, influence of other religions have affected their culture. This is also responsible for alienating them from their culture. The tribal groups have got divided into several sects on the basis of religion. This has shattered their collective life.
3. Social Problems:
Due to the influence of outsiders, the tribals are facing the problem of dowry, child marriage, infanticide, and un touchability. The contact with outsiders has created several social and health related problems.
4. Economic Problems:
Tribal people are economically backward. The major economic problems of tribals are as follows:
- Alienation of Tribal Land to the Non- Tribals
- Problem of indebtedness
- Exploitation in Forestry Operations
- Primitive methods of Cultivation
5. Educational Problems:
According to the 2011 census, the literacy among the scheduled Tribes was 29.6 percent. Main causes of slow progress in literacy among the scheduled Tribes are poverty of the parents, content of education, inadequate educational institutions and supporting services, absenteeism, medium of instruction and educational policy, etc.
6. Exploitation of tribals by the Moneylenders:
He Tribals continue to be the victims of exploitation by the moneylenders. Indebtedness among the Tribals may be attributed to the following reasons:
Poverty loopholes in the existing money lending laws, lack of awareness about sources of institutional finances and existing legal protection, inability to follow the complicated procedures to obtain loan and consumer credit from institutional sources are the major hindrances. Indifferent attitude of government and bank officials, private money lenders willingness to advance money to the Tribals without any security paves way for later exploitation.
Absence of alternative credit facility has compelled the tribals to compromise their fate with moneylenders and accept indebtedness as almost an inescapable aspect of their existence. Lack of employment opportunities add to their woes.
6. Health Problems:
The main cause of their sickness is the lack of clean drinking water, nutritive food, and prevalence of communicable diseases.
Explain I.P. Desai’s views on Indian family.
I.P. Desai studied a small port town in Gujarat called ‘Mahuva’ in the early sixties. Based on the data collected. i.P. Desai examined the question of jointness in terms of religion, occupation, relations, property, education, urbanisation, kinship obligations, and household composition. Besides the structural aspect of family, I.P. Desai examined carefully the types of jointness based on degree, intensity and orientation with regard to functions and obligations which people perform for each other, though living separately and at different far off places.
Desai finds the following five types of degrees of jointness:
- Households with zero degree of jointness.
- Households of low degree of jointness. (Joint by way of the fulfillment of mutual obligations.)
- Households with high degree of jointness (Jointness by way of common ownership of property.)
- Households with higher degree of jointness (Marginallyjoint families.)
- Households of highest degree of jointness. (Traditional joint families.)
Thus according to I.P. Desai, the structural breakdown is only apparent but not real. Today’s joint family may give rise to several nuclear families and each nuclear family may become a small joint family and after two decades when grand children are born, the depth of generations becomes three. Indian family is altering between nuclearness and jointness in a cyclical fashion.
Describe the social problems of India’s villages.
Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institutions and poor quality education coupled with high rate of dropout rate has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries, and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc. There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of Indian society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communication facilities are not up to the mark.
b. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank it has identified the following causes of poverty in rural areas:
- Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
- Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
- Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
- Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate exposure to modern skills.
- Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
- Poor quality of livestock.
- Imperfect and exploited credit market, communication facilities and markets.
- Low level of education.
- Absence of dynamic community leadership.
- Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes.
- Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
- Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people unwilling to discard expensive customs.
c. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas while 70% of the country’s population live in villages. This shows the extent to which skilled medical care is lacking in the rural areas. Fertility and Birth rate, as well as death rates, are very high in the villages.
Infant mortality’ and maternal mortality are also high. The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common. The housings are very much unsanitary’ while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse.
Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazards in rural areas. There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and-fertilisers. It affects J23 not only the yield but also health of the
Describe the emergence of new markets during the colonial period.
The advent of Colonialism in India produced major upheavals in the economy, causing disruptions in production, trade and agriculture. A well-known example is the demise of the handloom industry due to the flooding of the market with cheap manufactured textiles from England. In the colonial era, India began to be more fully linked to the world capitalist economy.
Before being colonised by the British, India was a major supplier of manufactured goods to the world market. After colonisation, India became a source of raw materials and agricultural products and a consumer of manufactured goods, both largely for the benefit of industrialising England. At the same time, new groups (especially the Europeans) entered into trade and business, sometimes in alliance with existing merchant communities and in some cases by forcing them out.
But rather than completely overturning existing economic institutions, the expansion of the market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by reorienting themselves to changing economic circumstances. In some cases, new communities emerged to take advantage of the economic opportunities provided by colonialism and continued to hold economic power even after Independence.
A good example of this process is provided by the Marwaris, probably the most widespread and best- known business community in India. Represented by leading industrial families such as the Birlas, Ambanis,Mittals etc., the Marwaris became a successful business community only during the colonial period, when they took advantage of new opportunities in colonial cities such as Calcutta, Bombay and settled throughout the country to carry outtrade and money lending.
Like theNakarattars, the success of the Marwaris rested on their extensive social networks, which created the relations of trust necessary to operate their banking system. Many Marwari families accumulated enough wealth to become moneylenders, and by acting as bankers also helped the commercial expansion of the British in India.
Explain the five major factors contributing to globalization.
Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of societies across the world, with the spread of the same culture and economic interests across the globe. For example, media and consumer products are often produced for a world market, by the same firms running business all over the world.
Factors Contributing to Globalization:
Anthony Giddens has explained the following factors as contributing to Globalization
1. The Rise of Information and Communications Technology:
The explosion in global communications has been facilitated by a number of important advances in technology and the world’s telecommunication infrastructure. The spread of communication satellites has also been significant in expanding international communications. Today a network of more than 200 satellites is in space to facilitate the transfer of information around the globe.
The use of Satellites, Internet, Telephones, Computer Networking, known as Information and Communication Technologies – ICT – have revolutionised the way the world communicates. You could be chatting online, through the internet, with your friend or family, who is thousands of miles away, and feel that you share your everyday travails much more than a person who is closer home like your neighbor. You could be working in India for a company that is located in the United States of America through telecommunication technologies.
2. Information Flows:
It has also facilitated the flow of information about people and events in distant places. Every day, the global media brings news, images and information into homes, linking them directly and continuously to the outside world.
Some of the most gripping events of the past three decades – such as the fall of the Berlin Wall,the violent crackdown on democratic protesters in China’s Tiananmen Square and the Terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 11
September 2001, Spring movement in Arabian countries, have unfolded through the media before global audience.
Such events, along with thousands of information, have resulted in a reorientation in people’s thinking from the level of the nation-state to the global stage. In the case of natural disasters, such interventions take the form of humanitarian relief and technical assistance. In recent years, earthquakes in Armenia and Turkey, floods in Mozambique and Bangladesh, famine in Africa and hurricanes in Central America have been rallying points for global assistance.
3. Knowledge Society:
The emergence of the knowledge society has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and eagerly integrate new advances in computing, entertainment and Telecommuni-cations into their everyday lives. The very operation of the global economy reflects the changes that have occurred in the information age. Many aspects of the economy now work through networks that cross national boundaries, rather than stopping at them.
4. Transnational Corporations:
In globalization, the role of trans-national corporations is particularly important. Transnational corporations are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. For example Coca-Cola., Pepsi, Johnson and Johnson, Ford, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, Indian corporations like Reliance, TATAs, Birla Groups, Infosys, Mahindras, TVS group, Wipro, etc. Even when trans-national corporations have a clear national base, they are oriented towards global markets and global profits. Transnational corporations are at the heart of economic globalization.
5.The Electronic Economy:
Globalization is also being driven forward by the integration of the world economy. In contrast to previous eras, the global economy is no longer primarily agricultural or industrial in its basis. Rather, it is increasingly dominated by activity that is weightless and intangible. This U weightless economy is one in which products have their base in information, as is the case with computer software, media and; entertainment products and Internet-based services.
The ‘Electronic Economy’ is another factor ‘that underpins economic globalization. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse. As the global economy becomes increasingly integrated, a financial collapse in one part of the world can have an enormous effect on distant economies.
6. Political changes:
Another driving force behind contemporary globalization is related to political change. These are;
1. The collapse of Soviet-style communism in 1991. The collapse of communism has hastened processes of globalization but should also be seen as a result of globalization itself.
2. The important political factor leading to intensifying globalization is the Growth of International and Regional Mechanisms of Government namely The United Nations and the European Union. SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation) and BRICS (Brazil; Russia, India, China, and South Africa) are; the two most prominent examples of international organizations that bring together nation-states into a common political forum.
Finally, globalization is being driven by International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) and International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs). An IGO is a body that is established by Participating governments and given responsibility for regulating or overseeing a particular domain of activity that is transnational in scope. The first such body, The International Telegraph Union, was founded in 1865. Since that time, a great number of similar bodies have been created.
In 1909, there were only 37 IGOs in existence to regulate transnational affairs; by 1996, there were 260. Some of the best-known INGOs – such as Greenpeace, Medicines Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders), the Red Cross and Amnesty International-are involved in environmental protection and humanitarian efforts. But the activities of thousands of lesser-known groups also link together countries and communities.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Define demography and explain the major characteristics of demographic profile of India.
Demography is the systematic study of population. The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people. The term Demography was coined by Achille Guillard in 1855. Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population including – changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men and different age groups.
There are different varieties of demography, including Formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and Social demography which focuses on the social, economic or political aspects of population. All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
In India, census was conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72, and regular ten yearly (decennial) censuses have been, conducted since 1881. Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011. Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population
- Age structure of the Indian population
- Sex-Ratio in India.
- Birth rate and Death rate
- Increasing Literacy rate of Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%. This was because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19.
The growth rate of population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011. The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age .group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policy makers, social activists, and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overall 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has
dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.
Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period. Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. Total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Mention the constitutional measures for welfare of SCs.
Constitutional provisions relating to the above said groups are as follows:
a. Article 15:
The state shall hot discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any such thing. The removal of any disability, restriction or condition with regard to access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and place of public entertainment or the use of wells, tanks, roads, and place of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of state funds or dedicated to the use of general public.
b. Article 16:
There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matter relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state.
c. Article 17:
Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of untouchability shall be an offense punishable in accordance with law.
d. Article 23:
Illegalizes traffic in human beings and forced labor.
e. Article 25 B:
Hindu religious institutions of public characters are open to all classes and sections of Hindus.
f. Article 29:
Any cultural and linguistic minority has the right to conserve its language or culture. The article provides protection to scheduled tribe communities to preserve their languages, dialects and cultures. The state would not by law enforce upon them any other culture or language.
g. Article 46:
The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections of the people and in particular of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
h. Article 164:
This provides for a separate ministry in charge of Welfare of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and backward classes.
i. Article 325 of part XV:
It guarantees to all citizens of India the right to vote.
j. Article 330, 332 and 334:
This provides that seats shall be reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the house of people and state legislatures.
k. Article 335:
It mentions the claim of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
l. Article 338:
This empowers the Central government to appoint a Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
m. Article 339:
This empowers the President to appoint a Commission to report on the administration of the scheduled areas and the welfare of scheduled tribes in the states.
n. Article 341:
This empowers the President to specify the castes, races or tribes deemed as Scheduled’ Castes in a particular state or Union territory.
o. Article 342:
This empowers the President to specify the tribes deemed to be Scheduled Tribes in a particular state or Union territory.
Explain the Methodical understanding of farmers’ suicides.
R.S. Deshpande and Saroj Arora methodically analysed the causes of farmers’ suicides and listed them as
- Actors and
Among the ‘events’, crop loss, failure of a bore well, price crash, daughter’s marriage, family problems and property disputes are included.
These become ‘stressors’ (stress creators) when two or more such ‘events’ cluster together: Specifically, illness of the individual or any of the family members, heavy borrowings, continued disputes in the family or land-related problems usually act as ‘stressors’. These become lethal in combination with the ‘events’ but further ignition comes through the ‘actors/catalysts’ and ‘trigger’ incidences.
Actors/catalysts create a sense of ‘insecurity’ or ‘insult’ to the potential victim. These include the moneylenders, bankers, spouses, relatives and close friends.
On the background of the ‘events’ and ‘stressors’, the ‘actors/catalysts’ fire the final act by forcing an occasion to be the ‘Trigger’ for the unfortunate incident. Given this complex nature of the phenomena, it certainly becomes difficult to pinpoint one particular reason for suicide. Emile Durkheim’s monograph on Suicide indicates growing alienation of individual from the family, society and religion as a factor responsible for suicide.
According to Durkheim suicides indicate social disintegration. Among the reasons cited in various studies associated with suicides, indebtedness is one of the reasons but it is not the only risk factor. Multiple risk factors feed into each other and reinforce each other. In addition to the weather related uncertainties, the farmer is also faced with market (increasing costs and output price shocks), technology, spurious inputs, and credit-related vulnerabilities.
In the absence of risk mitigation strategies, the farmer is at the receiving end. Under stress, some farmers end up committing suicide. Studies indicate that suicides are occurring in the high and medium growth states and are conspicuously absent in the backward states like BIMARU (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh). Scholars have articulated ‘High Aspirations’ or the thrust for upward mobility in the absence of public policy support, major causation for suicides in the backward areas of medium growth states.
List out the demands of farmers as presented by Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha.
Rudrappa, Sundaresh, and Nanjundaswamy presented the farmers’ demands to the Chief Minister Gundu Rao on October 17, 1980. They were as follows:
- Release unconditionally all farmers arrested in various movements and withdraw cases against them.
- Waive loans owed by farmers so far to the government. Give fresh loans at simple interest, without mediation of banks and co-operatives.
- The scale of loans should keep pace with the rising expenses of cultivation.
- Return all property attached and auctioned for non-payment of loans.
- Abolish land revenue and betterment levy; reduce water rates; abolish water rate for tank water and seepage water, and for lands which are not supplied with water; abolish agricultural income tax.
- Remove taxes and other restrictions on the use of tractors, trailors of farmers.
- Abolish purchase tax on sugarcane with effect from 1979-80.
- Reduce electricity charges to 6V2 paise per unit.
- Fix agricultural prices scientifically, based on man-hours spent, means it is the government should buy the agricultural produce at the supportive price.
- The principle for price fixation is that price should be real in the sense that they should have parity with the prices of inputs and man hours spent.
- Declare agriculture as an industry, and extend all facilities enjoyed by industrial labor to agriculturists also.
- Provide crop insurance throughout the state, without demanding premium from farmers.
- Every farmer and farm laborer should get old age pension.
- Agricultural laborers should be given wages and other facilities as in the case of industrial workers. Not only right prices to farmers but also right wages to laborers should be fixed from time to time.
- To reduce pressure on land, give governmental land to landless laborers and help them in cultivating it under government supervision.
- Give lands to tenants without occupancy price and give lump sum compensation to landowners. ‘
- Allocate 80% of plan expenditure on village development.
- Provide travel worthy roads in countryside.
- Reserve 50% of seats in educational institutions and employment for farmers’ children.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (2 × 5 =10)
Explain the challenges to National Integration.
National integration refers to national unity and a sense of belonging to the nation. It is an essential aspect in the making of a nation. Promotion of national integration is regarded as a part and parcel of the policy of any country. According to Benjamin “National integration refers to the assimilation of the entire people of a country to a common identity”.
In simple words, National Integration refers to the process wherein a feeling of togetherness, a sense of national unity and above all, a sense of national belongingness is developed among people. It is in this context, the concept of ‘National integration’ has assumed importance.
There are many challenges to National integration.
They are as follows;
- Linguist and
- Extremism and Terrorism
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements. Selfish politicians exploit it. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism is mainly of four forms namely
- Demand for separation from the Indian Union
- Demand for a separate statehood
- Demand for a full-fledged statehood
- Inter-states disputes-Border disputes.
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religions. Communalism is the product of a particular society, economy and polity, which creates problems. Communalism is an ideological tool for propagation of economic and political interests. It is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and prejudice and hatred towards other languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called as a ‘Museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.
4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfil one’s objectives. In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence. India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal (1986).
Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to Prof. Rama Ahuja, there are four types of terrorism India, (1) Khalistan oriented terrorism in Punjab (2) Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
(3) Naxalite terrorism in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh. (4) ULFA terrorism in Assam.
The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. The Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation. In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty, unemployment/ youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.
Describe the types of Microfinance.
Types of Microfinance
1. Informal Financial Service Providers :
These include moneylenders, pawnbrokers, savings collectors, chit funds and input supply shops. Because they know each other well and live in the same community, they understand each other’s financial circumstances and can offer very flexible, convenient and fast services. These services can also be costly and the choice of financial products limited and very short-term. Informal services that involve savings are also risky; many people have lost their money in Chit funds.
2. Member-Owned Organizations:
These include self-help groups, credit unions, and a variety of hybrid organizations like ‘Financial Service Associations’. They are generally small and local, which means they have access to good knowledge of each other’s financial circumstances and can offer convenience and flexibility.
Grameen Bank, Bangladesh is a member-owned organization started by Muhammad Yunus in 1970. They have proven very innovative, pioneering banking techniques like solidarity lending, village banking, and mobile banking that have overcome barriers to serving poor populations.
3. Formal Financial Institutions:
In addition to commercial banks, these include State banks, Agricultural development banks, Savings banks, Rural banks, and Non bank financial institutions. They are regulated and supervised, offer a wider range of financial services, and control a branch network that can extend across the country and internationally.
However, they have proved reluctant to adopt social missions, and due to their high costs of operation, often can’t deliver services to poor or remote populations. Efforts are being made to link self-help groups to commercial banks, by integrating mobile banking and e-payment technologies into their extensive branch networks.
Describe the recent trends in media.
As is evident, the reasons for this amazing growth in the circulation of Indian language newspapers are many.
1. There is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities. The Hindi daily Hindustan in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped to 425,000 by 2005. The reason was that of Delhi’s I
population of one crore and forty-seven lakhs, 52 percent had come from the Hindi belt. Out of this, 47 percent have come from a rural background and 60 percent of them are less than 40 years of age.
2. Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayala Manorama in Malayalam and Eenadu in Telugu launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and block editions.
3. Dina Thanthi, a leading Tamil newspaper, has always used simplified and colloquial language. In Kannada, Prajavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Kannada Prabha have adopted the same techniques.
4. The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets.
5. Marketing strategies have also marked the growth of the DainilcBhaskar group and Vijayakamatika as they carry out consumer contact programmes, door-to-door surveys, and research
6. Cross media ownership trend is becoming visible among the major players such as Eenadu, group, Times group, Dainik Jagran, and Sahara who plunged into TV news after . their long innings in newspapers. While English newspapers, often called ‘National Dailies’ like The Times of India, the Hindu, The Indian Express, The Economic Times, Hindustan Times, Deccan Herald and etc, circulate across the nation, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation within the states and ruler hinterland.
In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers on the one hand have reduced their prices and on the other hand brought out editions from multiple centres. There is also an increasing dependence on the sponsors of advertisements. Many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in the circulation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded.
In 1991 there was just one state controlled TV channel in India. ‘Doordarshan’. By 1998, there were 70 channels. Privately run satellite channels have multiplied rapidly since the mid-1990s. The staggering growth of private satellite television has been one of the defining developments of contemporary India. The Gulf War of 1991 (which popularised CNN), and the launching of Star-TV in the same year by the Whampoa Hutchinson Group of Hong Kong, signalled the arrival of private Satellite Channels in India.
In 1992, Zee TV, a Hindi-based satellite entertainment channel, also began beaming programs to cable television viewers in India By 2000, many private cable and satellite channels were available including several that focused exclusively on regional-language broadcasting like Sun-TV, Eenadu-TV, Udaya-TV, Raj-TV, and Asianet. Zee TV has also launched several regional networks in other languages. India based English news channels like NDTV 24 x 7 CNN, IBN, Times Now, Headlines Today are also popular among English speaking people.
The coming in of transnational television companies social and cultural activities. like star TV, MTV, Channel[V], sony and other worried some people on the likely impact on Indian youth and on the Jhdi&n cultural identity, put most of the transnational Television channels have through research, realised that the use of the familiar is more effective in getting the attention of the diverse groups that constitute Indian audience.
So these channels have also given importance to family oriented entertainment. Entertainment television has produced a new cadre of superstars who have become familiar household names. Reality shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati or Indian Idol or Big Boss have become increasingly popular. Most of these are modeled along the lines of western programmes.
Explain the role of Gram Panchayath in rural development.
Panchayat Raj is a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political reign of rural India. Generally it is also called as ‘Decentralization of Democracy’. Since 1959 Democratic Decentralization has been gradually extended throughout India. After the implementation of the 73 rd Amendment Act of the Constitution 1992, Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta Committee recommended a three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely,
- Village Panchayat – at the village level.
- Panchayat Samithi – at the Block level and
- Zilla Panchayat – at the District level
Functions of Village Panchayat:
The functions of the Village Panchayat are
- Provision of water supply
- Maintenance of minor irrigation
- School buildings
- Family Planning
- Construction of wells and tanks
- Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries. Apart from the above, they also manage promotion of village and cottage industries, providing electric power, construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation, Welfare of the weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs and festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.