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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2017

Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Which country is considered as world’s largest democracy?
India is considered as world’s largest democracy.

Question 2.
Which Act transferred power from company to crown?
1858 Act transferred power from company to crown.

Question 3.
Who is the present Chief Election Commissioner of India?
Sri Achal Kumar Joti is the present Chief Election Commissioner of India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Expand ‘EPIC’.
Electors Photo Identity Card.

Question 5.
Who started the Newspaper ‘Mookanayaka’?
Dr. B.R.Ambedkar started ‘Mookanayaka’.

Question 6.
Which day is celebrated as ‘World Environment Day’?
June 5th of every year is celeberated as the ‘World Environment Day’.

Question 7.
Who said ‘On this earth there is enough for everyone’s need, but not for greed’?
Mahathma Gandhi.

Question 8.
Who holds the financial powers during the times of national emergency?
President of India.

Question 9.
Name the Dictator of Libya.
Colonel Muhammar Gaddafi.

Question 10.
Who was called as “Bangabandhu”?
Shaik Mujjibur Rahman

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two or three sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Who were the Signatory of ‘Poona Pact’? And when?
Mahathma Gandhi and Dr.B.R.Ambedkar signed the ‘Poona Pact’ on 24th September 1932.

Question 12.
Define Regional Party? Give an example.
The parties which restricted to a particular state or area identifies itself with the regional language, culture, religion are called regional parties. Ex: Telegu Desam, DMK, Shiva Sena.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Name any four Varna’s that preveiled in ancient India.
Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vyshya, Shudra.

Question 14.
Name any two institutions established to prevent corruption in India.
Lokayuktha, central Bureau of Investigation.

Question 15.
What is coalition Government? Give an example.
Different Political Parties with different idealosies forms the government, it is called coalition government. Ex: UPA and NDA.

Question 16.
What is ‘Brain-drain’?
The immigration of highly educated, trained more salary and opportunities to other countries is called ‘Brain-drain’.

Question 17.
Name any two permanent members of the UN Security Council.
America and Russia.

Question 18.
What is Union List? Give an example.
The list of subjects on which central government has power to frame the laws is called Union List.
Ex : Defence, External Affairs, Currency.

Question 19.
Write any two objectives of the UNO?

  1. To maintain international peace and security.
  2. To uphold the human rights all over the world.

Question 20.
Write any two principle of ‘Panch Sheel’?

  1. Mutual Non- aggeression.
  2. Peaceful Co- existance.

Question 21.
When and where didi the 1st ‘NAM’ summit was held?
The first ‘NAM’ Summit was neld in 1961 is Belgrade of Yogoslavia.

Question 22.
Name any two groups of Tamil people in Sri Lanka.

  1. Ancient Tamils in Jaffna peninsula.
  2. Tamil immigrant labour.

III. Answer any 8 of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)

Question 23.
Explain the provisions of Indian Independence Act, 1947.
1. The Act Provided that on 15th August 1947, the appointed date, two independent dominions, India and Pakistan, would be set up and the Act provided for complete transfer of power.

2. The dominion of India got the territories of Bombay, Madras, UP, Central Provinces, Bihar, Assam, Delhi, Ajmer, Coorg, etc., and the rest of India except Sindh, Baluchistan, West Punjab, East Bengal, Northwest Frontier Province and Sylhet in Assam, which became the territories of Pakistan. For demarcating the boundaries, a Boundary Commission was formed with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as the Chairman.

3. The Crown was no longer the source of authority.

4. The Governor-General and provisional Governors were to act as constitutional head. They lost extra-ordinary powers to legislate.

5. The office of the Secretary of State was abolished.

6. From 15th August 1947, the British Crown lost all rights of Paramountcy over India and the Indian states were free to join either Indian Union or Pakistan.

7. The power in each dominion was transferred, to the Constituent Assembly which became fully sovereign from 15th August 1947 and were absolutely free to frame the constitution. The Constituent Assemblies had a dual role i.e. Constituent and Legislative. They functioned as Central Legislature, till the new Legislatures were formed.

8. Until the new Constitution was framed, the Act of 1935 would govern the Centre and the Provinces with necessary modifications.

Question 24.
What is ‘Patel scheme’? Explain.
Sardar Patel took charge of the Indian states Department and V.P. Menon became secretary on 5th July 1947. They dealt with matters arising between central Government and the Indian states. The biggest individual factor in the above spectacular event was the personality of Sardar Patel.

The success of Integration is attributed to his astute statesmanship, intense patriotism and. great administrative skill. He handled the Kings of Princely states with patience, tact, and sympathy. He was a man of Iron will. The integration of states is his greatest contribution to independent India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
Write short notes on mandatory disclosure of antecedents of the candidates.
The candidates have to disclose their personal details of criminal, education and property while filing their nominations.

1. Criminal antecedents:
To curb criminalization of politics, the Supreme Court of India in 2002, gave directions to Election Commission to implement and Parliament also amended the Representation of People’s Act of 1951 in December 2002.

Through this Act, submission of details regarding criminal antecedents are made compulsory for all the candidates along with their nomination papers. The details of cases pending against them in the courts and whether they were convicted or acquitted.

The recent decisions of the Supreme Court made it clear that the candidates having criminal records are debarred from contesting elections and members of legislature would lose their membership. In this regard, the Election Commission has framed rules to restrict the candidates from contesting elections. Disqualification for criminal offences is provided, in RP Act of 1951.

a. As per the Act, a person is disqualified from contesting elections only on conviction by a court of law.

b. Cases filed six months before election would lead to disqualification.

c. Cases in which candidates have been accused with the offence and sentenced for 2 or more years are disqualified to contest the elections.

d. With the offence proved by a court of law, a person is not eligible to contest elections for a period of 6 years. The availability of detailed information about the candidates through, media, enables the public to select and elect the candidates having clean records with, service motto.

2. Educational Antecedents:
The candidate has to file an affidavit to give information relating to his educational qualifications. Being representative of the people, one has to be educated and able to take part actively in the proceedings of the Legislature, administration and in law-making processes. Though the constitution has not mentioned any minimum educational qualifications for the candidates, this disclosure enables the voters to elect qualified persons.

3. Property Antecedents :
Contesting an election is an expensive affair and persons with good education but dearth of funds may hesitate to contest whereas people with money power get elected and may amass more wealth. This leads to corruption. To curb this, the Election Commission has made it mandatory to declare the details of movable and immovable properties of the candidates and their families. This disclosure helps the voter to assess the honesty or otherwise of the candidates.

Question 26.
Write the functions of UPSC.
Article 315 provides for the establishment of the Union Public Service Commission. UPSC is an independent constitutional body entrusted with the work of recruitment on the basis of merit.

1. Composition:
At present, the UPSC is composed of a Chairman and 10 members. Members are appointed by the President. It provides for half of the members of the Commission to be administrators with a minimum of the 10 years experience in government service. Nothing is mentioned regarding the qualifications of the remaining members.

2. Tenure:
A member of the Union Public Service Commission holds office for a period of 6 years or till he attains the age of 65 years, whichever comes earlier. Chairman or members of the commission are not eligible for re-appointment after retirement. The Chairman of the UPSC is also not eligible for further employment under Central or State Governments, however, a member of the UPSC may be appointed as a Chairman of the UPSC or the state Public Service Commission.

3. Removal:
The Chairman and members of the UPSC can be removed from the office only by on order of the President, on the ground of misbehaviour proved by the Supreme Court. All these provisions have been made to make the Commission an independent and impartial body.

Article 320 of the Indian Constitution enumerates the functions of the UPSC :

  1. To conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union and All India Service.
  2. To assist two or more states, on request for joint recruitment for any services.
  3. To advise the government on matters relating to the methods of recruitment, promotions, transfers, disciplinary actions, and inter-service matters.
  4. To present annual report regarding its working to the President.
  5. To exercise such additional functions as provided by an act of Parliament.
  6. To serve all or any needs of the State Government on request by the Governor and with the approval of the President.

Question 27.
Write short notes on any two movements of spearheading for the conservation of environment in India.
Causes for Environmental Movement are as follows.

1. To protect the Environmental degradation:
The Government of India has taken measures for economic development including industrial and technological development. This has led to industrialization, urbanization and their adverse effects like loss of cultivable land, and also on the fertility of the soil.

2. To protect Mo-diversity:
Deforestation for fuel and construction purposes has left the wildlife and birds to become orphan. Hence Chipco, Appico, and Save Western Ghats Movements started.

3. Environment education and consciousness:
Living amidst environment, formal education in schools, colleges, and non-governmental organizations have created awarness and consciousness among human beings. Programmes, rallies, and Jathas have gone a long way in this direction.

4. To curb environment decay:
The greediness of the people to excavate and exploit resources have resulted in soil erosion, drying up of rivers and reservoirs, pollution of air, water and sound, etc. To maintain equilibrium and to pressurize the people in power to take measures, these movements emerged.

Question 28.
What are the causes for Backward Class Movements?
1. Social discrimination:
These communities faced social discrimination like superior and inferior throughout the years. They were not allowed to come to the mainstream. Hence they started agitation to get the facilities and their due share in the post-independence period.

2. Economics Exploitation:
Exploitation leads to economic inequality among the backward classes. Many of these communities were Below Poverty Line (BPL) and were poverty-stricken. To get these facilities, they united together and started agitation.

3. Educational backwardness:
Upper caste monopolised the field of education and denied access to these communities. As education is fundamental for self-development these backward communities are against the upper caste and organised agitation.

4. Denial of Political representation:
A few communities dominated political field and other backward classes were totally neglected. During 1920, the agitation started in Mysore Province by Backward classes to get political participation to Non-Brahmins led by Sri Kantharaje Urs.

5. Unification:
It is difficult to achive anything without any unity and integrity. Hence Backward classes who are more than 350 in number were unorganised and scattered. To unit them and to fight for their cause, movement was started.

Question 29.
Why ‘Illiteracy’ is an impediment to Democracy? Discuss.
Illiteracy means the inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person.

Illiteracy is a curse on human development. Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and abused by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired through education.
The % of literacy in 1951 and 2011 overall.
2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2019 img 1
2011 census report recorded the literacy rate in Kerala at 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.

1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy would contribute for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in the political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the idealogies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules, and process.

2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election, the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling.

3. Money and Muscle Power:
The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means Rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power have led to criminalization of politics.

4. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society.

Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people to depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.

5. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into dictatorship.

Question 30.
Write the various provisions of ‘UAPA’, passed in 2008.
The Act was passed by the Parliament in 2008. The UAPA replaced POTA. It contains the following main provisions. The words “Terrorist Act” are defined in section 15 of the Act. “Any act which threatens the unity, integrity, sovereignty of India or with intent to strike terror in the people or any section of people in India or in any foreign Country.

1. Those persons who have the intention of aiding, abetting or committing a terrorist act shall be punishable with imprisonment for 10 years and fine.

2. Punishment for raising funds for terrorist acts is 5 years which may extend to life imprisonment and liable to fine.

3. Prescribe punishment for recruitment of persons for terrorist act and their training. The punishment is 5 years which may extend to imprisonment for life and liable to fine.

4. Every offence punishable under this Act shall be deemed to be a cognizable offences. If the investigation cannot be completed within 90 days, the court may extend the detention period up to 180 days.

5. If there are sufficient grounds for detention of an accused person under the Act, no bail is granted. Further, no bail shall be granted to a foreigner who has entered the country illegally except to a foreigner who has entered the country illegally except in very exceptional circumstances and for reasons to be recorded in writing.

6. The Central Government has the power to freeze, seize or attach funds or other financial assets or economic resources of the terrorist groups.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Explain the political implications of Globalisation.
Globalisation is the process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestion of Globalisation has been the increasing economics integration among the countries in trade and investment.

An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie., international trade, international investment, and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries.

The Economy of India had undergone significat policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990’s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatizaton, and globalisation(LPG) model.

The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at the strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.

In brief, the salient points of Glabalisation are

  • Efficiency
  • Transfer of technology
  • Concept of a global village
  • Mobility of labour force
  • Global competion resulting in better performance
  • Outsourcing and
  • Optimum utilization of human resources.

The political implications of globalisation are as follows.

1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation brought lots of changes in the world economy. For small countries it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totality.

2. Affects the Soverignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc., the sovereign countries are bound by decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totally.

3. Cultural Invasion:
Culture is a complex whole and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.

4. Enslavement of Lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.

5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of gloablisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture in a phased manner. The worst-hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.

6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country.
Hence development comes to a standstill.

Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.

Question 32.
Write briefly on the composition, role, power, and functions of the UN Security Council.
The Security Council is often described as the enforcement wing (world executive body). It is the most powerful organ of the UNO. Its main A responsibility is to maintain world peace and security. It consists of 15 members. Five of them are permanent members (UK, USA, Russia, France, and China) while the other ten are non-permanent members.

Permanent members have ‘Veto-Power’. Ten Non-permanent members are represented by the elected representatives who are elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years.

The Security Council is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. It has the power to discuss, investigate and make recommendations in this regard. The member states are called upon to settle disputes by peaceful means. It is empowered to decide the measures to be taken to restore international peace.

It also recommends the person to be appointed as Secretary General to the General Assembly. A military committee has been set up to assist the Security Council.

The UN has its own Peace Keeping Force. Each member of the Security Council has one vote. The decisions of the Security Council are binding on all UN members. Mr. Ban- ki-Moon took over office on 1st January 2007. On 21st June 2011, he was unanimously re-elected by the General Assembly and will continue to serve until 31st December 2016.

Question 33.
Write a note on Non-Aligned Movement.
The basic principles of Indian foreign policy are Non-Alignment. After the II world war, the world was divided into two military blocs, one led by the USA and another by USSR. Many countries of the world became the allies of these two military blocs. But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs.

India was the first country to speak of non-alignment and major contributor to the emergene of Non-Align Movement. Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India, Gen. Sukarno President of p Indonesia Josif Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia, Kwame Nkrumah Prime Minister of Ghana and Gamal Abdel Nasser leader of Egypt were the founders of this movement.

This first summit of NAM which was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961 with 25 member countries. At present, it has 128 members. Recent NAM summit concluded in August 2012 at Tehran, Iran Venezuela will host the next 17th summit in 2015.

Question 34.
Explain the Kashmir issue in India and Pakistan relations.
In India’s perspective Kashmir is an integral part of the republic of India and to Pakistan, it is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashmir is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of, population are Muslims, Kashmir should be part of Pakistan. This argument failed to recognize the following facts:-

  1. Partition was done of the British Indian Provinces & and not of the Indian princely states.
  2. National Conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was affiliated to Congress. It was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
  3. The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
  4. India was a secular state consisting of a multi-religious population.

So, Kashmir formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribals supporterd by the Pakistan Army.

IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 35.
Explain the powers and functions of the Election Commission of India.
Democratic system in India provides for impartial, free and fair elections. The framers of Indian constitution clearly made provisions for an statutory body called Election Commission to conduct elections in India. Article 324 to 329 in part XV deals with the composition, powers, and functions of the Election Commission.

The Election Commission conducts elections to the office of the President, Vice President Union Parliament, Legislature of State, Union territories and Local bodies.

1. Composition of Election commission:
Article 324 provides for the office of the Election Commission of India. It consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and the other Election Commissioners. Till 1993, it was a single-member body but later on, it became a three-member body during the Prime Ministership of Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao.

2. Appointment and Removal:
According to Art 342 (2), Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners are appointed by the President of India on the advice of Union Cabinet. The term of office is 6 years or till they reach the age of 65 years.

Article 324 (6) makes provisions for the salaries, allowances and other privileges to the Chief Election Commissioners, Election Commissioners, and the Personnel. The Parliament determines their salaries from time to time.

3. Removal:
According to Article 324(5), the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners can be removed from their office in the same manner as the Judges of Supreme Court, on the grounds of misbehavior and incapacity to discharge their constitutional obligations.

4. Power and functions:
According to Article 324 (1), the Election Commission does the following.

  • Prepares electoral roll and its periodical revision.
  • Holds elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and offices of President and Vice President.
  • After the announcement of elections, it decides the time table.
  • It conducts by-elections to vacant seats.
  • It grants recognition to political parties as National and State parties.

According to Election Emblem Act 2000.

5. For National party:

  1. 6% of valid votes in 4 or more States in LokSabha or Vidhana Sabha election and 4 LokSabha seats in any State or States or
  2. Minimum 2% of Lok Sabha seats in 3 States.

6. For State party:

1. 6% of valid votes in Lok Sabha or Vidhana Sabha elections from the State and two Vidhana Sabha seats, or

2. 3% seats of total Vidhana Sabha seats in the States or success at least in three constituencies.

  • It scrutinizes the nomination papers.
  • It allots symbols to political parties and independent candidates.
  • It appoints officers and other staff members to conduct election and make necessary arrangements.
  • It can order for re-poll in any constituency or any polling booth.
  • It can withhold the election results on valid grounds.
  • The President or the Governor acts on the advice of the Election Commission at the time of disqualification of members of the house.
  • It enforces the code of conduct for the candidates and political parties i.e. the election expenses and submission of accounts after election, environmental protection against noise pollution, etc., during elections.
  • As per the Representation of People’s Act (RPA) of 1950 and 1951, Election Commission of India conducts the process of election.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
Discuss the hindrances and the remedial measures in Nation-Building.
1. Poverty:
Large sections of our societies live in the villages and their major occupations is Agriculture. They rely upon monsoon which quite irregular. Hence the output is very low. As a result, more than 1/5th of the total population is living BPL. Poverty denies access to good health, sanitation facilities and basic infrastructure necessary for personality development.

2. Population Explosion:
Census reports of 2011 prove that India is overpopulated (1.2 billion). Though a resource, it is not properly utilized to strengthen the nation. Population explosion has led to unemployment, housing shortage of food and other basic amenities.

3. Regional Imbalance:
All the regions of our country are not evenly developed. This leads to separatist tendencies that curbs national development e.g. Marathawada and Vidharbha in Maharashtra, Telengana region in AP, Korapat and Kalahandi regions in Odisha, North Eastern Region and Gorkha hill areas.

4. Social and political disturbances:
In India social and political disturbances have become common in recent years causing tension, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Kerala have become communally sensitive states. Likewise, caste conflicts, terrorism, the centre-state, and inter-state disputes have affected nation’s march towards development.

5. Political Crisis:
The coalition politics and the emergence of too many political parties, regional and sectarian feelings have created political crisis cm many occasions. The vested interests have prevented the Parliament and State Legislatures to enact necessary laws for the development of the nation. Money power and muscle power have led to the growth of leaders without principles for whom it has become a gainful employment.

Question 37.
Discuss the importance and political implications of liberalisation.
Liberalization is the “willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinion different from one’s own; open to new ideas”. Liberalization is the process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanism and eleimination of customs and tariffs. Economic liberalization is the policy of relaxation over economic and trade policies. Importance of Liberalization are as follows:-

This leads to lower costs and prices for consumers to get the gods and services according to his wishes. There are many number of companies which bring lot of quantity products for consumer’s interests and demands. In liberalised economy, consumer gets more benefits.

2. Free from Government regulations:
Government provides free movement of trade and commerce where any private company can easily carry on their business activities without any restrictions. The companies need not undergo procedural delay by government.

3. Promotes competitions:
Liberalisations extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically they keep the standards and cheaper prices for consumers. Competition promoters efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.

4. Promotes world business class:
Liberalization makes new changes is an advance technology and logistics for better services. That can be useful to save time, energy and money. It promotes the high quantity of products and supplies the same in time.

Political implications of liberalization are as follows:-

1. Risk of brain drain:
In the name of liberalised policy citizens knock at the door of international opportunities, with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face lots of problem from such brain drain.’

2. Reduces dependency on labour:
AS the process itself is capital intensive, it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for jobs.

3. Risk of environmental degradation:
The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates lot of wastage leading to environmental degradation.

4. Regulates the price of certain commodities:
The price of certain commodities like-life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc., are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.

5. Risk of financial instability:
Flexibility (laxity) of monetary and fiscal policies of the Government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
Explain the establishment and area of Co-operation of SAARC.
In the rapidly changing global environment regional integration in South Asia has assumed a new strategic significance. As a largest economy of the South Asian region it is imperative and right time for India to inculcate an environment of trust among SAARC partners. India stands to gain substantially form greater economic intergration in the region.

1. Summit level cooperation:
India has participated in all the summit-level meeting. During the 16th SAARC summit held in New Delhi on 3rd and 4th April 2007, the leaders recognized collectively in fulfilling this in a better way with the rest of the world. The Prime Minister of India Mr. Rajiv Gandhi attended the first SAARC summit held in Bangladesh in 1985.

He emphasized the core issue of economics development in the South Asian region with joint efforts. India is committed to fastening the sense of a South Asian Identity through the SAARC process, enhancing mutual confidence in multiple areas in trying to leverage India’s rapid economic growth into win-win arrangements with her neighbours.

The change perhaps started in about 2002 in India, has gained momentum since India acquired the Chairmanship of SAARC in April 2007. Among several factors that are perhaps responsible for this positive movement, the more important one is the acceleration in economic growth in all major regional economics specially India.

2. SAARC Regional Centres:
India is having two regional centres:-

  • SAARC Documentation centre (SDC) in New Delhi.
  • SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) in New Delhi.

3. SAARC development Fund (SDF):
India has been 6ne of major contribution to the SAARC Development Fund. The Fund has the areas of action social, economic and infrastructure. India has offered US $100 million for the SAARC fund to be utilized for projects in other SAARC countries.

4. Economic co-operation:
The Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) was signed in 1993 and four rounds of trade negotiations have been concluded. The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (S AFTA) was signed. Creation of Export Promotion Zones and Special Economic Zones in each SAARC member country as pointed out by industrial bodies which enhances investment and will thus encourage Intra-SAARC investments.

5. People-to-people Countries:
For strengthening cooperation in information and media-related activities of the Association, the heads of National Television and Radio Organisations of member countries meet annually. The SAARC Audio-Vissual exchange (SAVE) Committes disseminates information both on SAARC and its member States through regular Radio and TV programme.

6. Educational Cooperation:
India proposed to create a centre of excellence in the form of a South Asian University (SAU), which can provide world class facilities and professional facualty to students and researchers drawn from each country of the region. The south asian university is established in India.

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)

Question 39.
Prepare a report of ‘Teacher’s Day’ celebration in your college.
1. Teacher’s Day celebration :
Teacher’s day a memorable occasion for the nation and student community, in particular, is celebrated every year on 5th September, the birthday of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, our second president. In our college it is a regular feature and this year also it was celebrated. Under the guidance of the teachers, our student volunteers had decorated the college grounds and erected a stage by the previous evening only.

On the day of the function, we had invited a few eminent educationists to grace the occasion and our college. Dean had kindly consented to preside over. The programmes started on schedule by 5.00 P.M. after the invocation and prayer we had extempore speech contests for the degree students and pre-university students separately.

Our culture club secretary welcomed and garlanded the guests. A high tea was arranged for the guests. There were speeches by some of our esteemed dignitaries on the role of teachers in moulding the society and the ways to improve the present educational system. The winners of the speech contests were given citations and some books by our chief guest.

The programme ended with sweet distribution after the vote of thanks.


Explain the role and function of Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner (DC) is the head of the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate, Superintendent of Police (SP), District Treasury Officer. Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare Officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction, District Medical Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner.

The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.

1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.

2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commissioner.

3. Development Functions:
It includes Public Health, Education, Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.

4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation, and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps, and registration.

5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.

Question 40.
Analyse the effects of De-monetisation of Rs.500/- and Rs.1000/- notes.
The decision for the demonetisation of ₹ 500 and ₹1000 notes taken by the Narendra Modi Government was a landmark step in Independent India. Sri Modi announced the bank w.e.f. 8th November 2016, to effectively control black money. This sudden move had also affected the subversive activities of the infiltrations aided by the Pakistan Government.

The main objective of the move was to prevent cash hoarding and to bring black money into circulation and punish those who are not paying their taxes property. Unfortunately, this resulted in a lot of problems for the common man. There were not enough new notes available and banks were not capable of handling this sudden work pressure and cash crunch.

They were doling out new notes for limited value only. Public could withdraw only 2,000/-. many businesses also suffered. Small vendors were the worst hit. But gradually things have become normal, this is a good move for the future financial stability of the country.


Write a note on movement of ‘India Against Corruption’ (IAC)
Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan the pioneer of the total revolution, inspired youth during the 1970’s to revolt against the corrupt administration and travelled all over India to fight against the civil. During the 1980s, All Assam Student’s Union (AASU) fought against the corruption which threatened North Eastern States.

Today, the mood of the country especially the mood of youth is against corruption on war footing. The war against corruption is perceived the mother of all wars. Anti-corruption movement gathered moment when Anna Hazare kick-started the movement and gave a call to the youth to join him in a fight against corruption under the banner of India against corruption. (IAC)

1. Youth against corruption:
Independent India has seen scams like-Bofors, Fodder scam, Share Market scam, etc., where billions of rupees of public money has been swindled by unscrupulous people. In spite of exposure of these scams, corruption still persists in all walks of life including education, health, administration, and politics.

The overall effect of the youth movement against corruption is the creation of the institution of Lokpal, passing of Acts like Right to Information (RTI), Right to Education (RTE), Sakaal, introduction of transparency in election funding, etc.,