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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 3 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1=10)
Which act transferred Power from Company to Crown?
The Act of 1857 transferred Power from Company to Crown.
Who was the Chairman of Boundary Commission?
The Chairman of Boundary Commission was Sir Cyril Radcliffe.
EPIC = Elector’s Photo Identity Card.
Where is the Lai Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration situated?
Lai Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration is situated at Mussoorie.
Who appoints the members of State Public Service Commission?
The concerned Governor appoints the members of the State Public Service Commission.
Who started the newspaper ‘Mooka Nayaka’?
B.R. Ambedkar started the newspaper ‘Mooka Nayaka’.
When did the ‘Domestic Violence Act’ come into force?
The Domestic Violence Act came into force in 2005.
What is Nation Building?
Nation Building is the process of uniting people with a sense of Nationalism.
Mention the root word of ‘Coalition’.
The term coalition is derived from the Latin word ‘Coalition’. ‘Co’ means ‘together and ‘Alescere’ means to grow up’.
When did the Constitution of Bhutan come into force?
The Constitution of Bhutan came into force on 18th.
II. Answer any 10 of the following in 2-3 sentences. (10 × 2 = 20)
When was Federal court established in India and where?
Federal court was established in 1937 at Delhi.
What is Universal Adult Franchise? Give an example.
It is the right to vote given to all citizens after attaining a particular age. e.g. In India, it is 18 years.
What is Single party system? Give an example.
Existence of only a single political party in the country, e.g. China.
When is a Coalition Government formed?
In the elections, if no single party obtains absolute majority, a few like minded, parties may come together on a common platform to form a Government which is called a coalition Government.
What was the slogan of Dr B.R. Ambedkar?
‘Educate, Agitate and Organise’ was the popular slogan of Ambedkar.
What is good governance?
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness.
What is compulsory education?
Compulsory education means the obligation of the Government to provide free elementary education and compulsory admission.
Write the meaning of Illiteracy.
Illiteracy means the inability of a person to read and write in any language.
What is Brain Drain?
In most of the developing and underdeveloped nations, job opportunities are minimal. Educated persons, seeking better living conditions and earning options, migrate to developed countries. So the nations get drained of their intellectuals and face the problem of brain drain. These nations get deprived of their Scientists, Engineers and others.
Define International Relations.
According to Ola Joseph- “International Relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system”.
Name any two organs of UN.
- General Assembly.
- Security Council.
Write any two member countries of NAM.
India, Indonesia, Ghana, Egypt.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. (8 × 5 = 40)
Write a note on Interim Government.
The Interim Government of India was formed on 2nd September 1946. The constituent Assembly had 389 members. It was drawn from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India. It had the task of assisting the transition of India and Pakistan from British rule to independence.
It remained in force until 15th August 1947, when India became independent. The Constituent Assembly became a sovereign body and performed the role of legislature for the new State. It was responsible for framing the constitution and making ordinary laws as well.
Explain the features of Civil Services.
Features of Civil Services:-
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil Service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervise their subordinates. The authority runs from above and helps to make administration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to. the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of society. They must be humble and service minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties until they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If they cross the limit, they are met with disciplinary actions.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Mussoorie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.
Write about the composition of Union Public Service Commission.
Article 315 provides for the establishment of the Union Public Service Commission. UPSC is an independent constitutional body entrusted with the work of recruitment on the basis of merit.
At present, the UPSC is composed of a Chairman and 10 members. Members are appointed by the President. It provides for half of the members of the Commission to be administrators with a minimum of the 10 years experience in government service. Nothing is mentioned regarding the qualifications of the remaining members.
A member of the Union Public Service Commission holds office for a period of 6 years or till he attains the age of 65 years, whichever comes earlier. Chairman or members of the commission are not eligible for re-appointment after retirement. The Chairman of the UPSC is also not eligible for further employment under Central or State Governments, however, a member of the UPSC may be appointed as a Chairman of the UPSC or the state Public Service Commission.
The Chairman and members of the UPSC can be removed from the office only by on order of the President, on the ground of misbehaviour proved by the Supreme Court. All these provisions have been made to make the Commission an independent and impartial body.
Article 320 of the Indian Constitution enumerates the. functions of the UPSC :
- To conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union and All India Service.
- To assist two or more states, on request for joint recruitment for any services.
- To advise the government on matters relating to the methods of recruitment, promotions, transfers, disciplinary actions and inter service matters.
- To present annual report regarding its working to the President.
- To exercise such additional functions as provided by an act of Parliament.
- To serve all or any needs of the State Government on request by the Governor and with the approval of the President.
What are the causes for the rise of identity politics?
Identity politics is defined by one’s own identity based on race, ethnicity, gender, language religion. It is the politics of recognition and a movement to claim recognition. A person may have multiple identities but he perceives only a single identity at a time. Movements of lesbians, black civil rights, wave of feminists etc., have brought legitimacy to identity politics.
Causes for the rise of identity politics are as follows:
- Maladministration leads to the poor economic growth of a particular region or geographical backwardness of the people of a particular ethnic identity.
- The rise of regional parties has created the local awareness of language or region.
- Extreme poverty, exploitation, lack of opportunity and threat to existing group privileges to the ethnic groups.
- Ethnic groups’ fear of assimilation resulting in cultural dilution.
- Rise in standard of living, literacy and aspiration, socio-political awareness have led to identity politics.
- Lack of share in natural resources, fear of loss of land, political power and economic growth.
- Fear of losing scope in educational employment fields.
- Fear of losing ethnic identities like language and culture.
Describe the role of youth against Terrorism.
1. Youth against Terrorism:
Terrorism is used in various forms like international terrorism, domestic terrorism, economic terrorism, cultural terrorism, cyber terrorism etc., Terrorism means deliberately and violently targetting civilians by inflicting physical or mental agony, wound or death that creates fear psychosis, for political gains.
2. Role of youth against terrorism:
The concept of minority leads to fear of attack and results in religious fundamentalism. Hence, both the youth and the society have to pressurise the Government concerned, to create awareness and educate those who are indulging in anti-national and inhuman terrorist activities. Particularly for the youth priority should be given to peace and security of the inhabitants of the country.
Youth have to develop patriotism that is national feeling and involve themselves in constructive activities like nation-building by helping the Government against terrorist and militant activities taking place in their neighbourhood which is their prime duty.
Youth have to take the initiative within the Jurisdiction of law, to fight against terrorism as it happened in Naxalite prone states like Bihar, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh, where Salwajudum (village army) fought against the Naxalites. Youth must understand the complicated and multi faceted terrorism rationally. They have to isolate the terrorism and inoculate their potential recruits.
A successful counter terrorism action requires a combination of coercive and conciliatory policies. It is the responsibility of the youth to spread the importance of education that saves the younger generation from the clutches of terrorism and communalism as it happened in the case of Ms Malala Yusufa Zai of Pakistan, who survived the terrorist attack.
Explain the nature of Crony capitalism.
Crony capitalism is a negative term used to refer to the business dealings carried out by the Government officers in a capitalist economy.
Nature of crony capitalism are as follows:-
1. Favours political authorities:
Crony capitalism is a system in which, close associates of the people in power who enact laws and execute policies, get favours that have large economic impact.
2. Cronies are rewarded:
with the provision to charge higher prices for their output, than would prevail in a competitive market. Funds are funnelled to the enterprises of cronies through government controlled banks.
3. Protection of assets:
Crony capitalism allows Government to guarantee a subset of asset holders that their property rights are protected. As long as their assets are protected, these asset holders will continue to invest as if there were universal protection of property rights.
4. Share in the rents generated by the asset holders:
The members of the Government or members of their families, share the rents generated by the asset holders. This may take the form of jobs, co-investments or even transfers of stock. Crony capitalism goes hand in hand with corruption.
5. The concentration of economic Power:
A few business groups which are cronies, influence state policies and pool their assets in private corporate sectors. Such concentration gives birth to crony capitalism. Crony capitalism is an economic phenomenon with political consequences. In crony capitalism, the Government makes deals in closed doors, without public review and approval.
Explain the democratic movements in Nepal.
21st century is known as the era of democratic movements. These movements in Afro-Asian nations started to overthrow despotic, autocratic and other authoritarian governments. Nepal is a small landlocked kingdom in Southern Asia, lying between India to the south and Tibet to the North. Monarchy was prevalent in Nepal since the 18th century.
During the rule of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, democratic Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of India and China. Nepal’s democratic experiment suffered a serious setback in December 1960, when the first elected government led by National Congress leader Koirala was dissolved and the whole party activities were banned in Nepal in later parts of the decade which continued till 1979.
In 1980, limited democracy resulted in the creation of a multiparty parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996, with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a people’s Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 and ended with the Communist victory in 2001.
The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21st November 2006. The crown prince killed king Birendra and the royal family members, bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne. Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy.
At the same time, the king reinstated the old Nepal house of Representatives, with an assurance of permanent peace and the multiparty democracy. The king called upon the Seven party Alliance (SPA) to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity. The popular Government assumed office on 18th May 2006 and withdrew all the privileges given to the king unanimously.
The bill included the following.
- Imposing tax on the royal family and its assets.
- Ending the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory Council.
- Eliminating Royal references from army and Government titles.
- Declaring Nepal a secular country and not a Hindu kingdom.
- Scrapping the national anthem until a new one is composed.
- Eliminating the king’s position as the supreme commander of the army.
This is popularly known as the “Nepalese Magna Carta”.
Write about the principles and objectives of UN.
The Basic principles mentioned in Article 2 of the Charter are:
- The UN is based on the Sovereign equality of all its members.
- All members shall fulfill in good faith the U.N Charter obligations.
- They shall settle international disputes by peaceful means.
- They have to retain their international relations from the threat or use of force against other states.
- They have to extend all help to the actions being taken by UN.
- The UN shall ensure that States who are not members, act in accordance with the principles of UN.
- The Organisation shall not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State.
Describe the political implications of privatization.
The political implications of privatisation are as follows:
1. Concentration of Wealth:
Privatisation encourages concentration of wealth in the hands of a few big business groups. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.
2. More profits:
Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meagre percentage with the shareholders. They enjoy the lion’s share out of the shareholders’ investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor gets widened.
3. Bane to local industries:
Local people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidised rates of interest to start an industry. Multi-national companies with good financial back up survive even in case of loss.
4. Threat to national interest:
Key areas of a Nation like Defence, Space, Science and Technology are to be retained with the Government: Assigning these areas to private sector may harm National interests.
5. Lack of service motto:
Private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good service conditions to their staff and do not bother about extending welfare programmes to their employees and even to society.
6. No job security:
Private companies extract work from employees as long as they are fit. They ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. In the long run, they become a burden to the Government. The employees of private sectors suffer from job insecurity and this results in psychological disorders.
Write a note on BRICS.
It is important to note that BRICS is the acronym for an Association of five major emerging national economies
like Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The grouping was originally known as “BRIC” before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010.
The BRICS members arc either developing or newly industrialized. They are distinguished by their large fast growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs. All five are G-20 members. Presently, South Africa holds the chair of the BRICS group.
Summit level , meetings:
The leaders of RIC Countries. Russian President Valdmir Putin, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Chinese President Hu-Jintao-held the first summit in St.Petersburg on July 17, 2006, as part of the G-8 Summit conference program. Later, Brazil jointed the summit meeting.
The Foreign Minister of the initial four BRIC states met in New York in September 2006. They singled out agriculture, prevention of natural calamities and elimination of their aftermath and promotion of healthcare as the promising areas.
A full fledged diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg Russia. The summit focussed on the means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions. In the aftermath of the Yekaterinburg summit, the BRIC nations announced the need for a new global reserve currency, which would have to be “diversified, stable and predictable”.
Write about the role of India in the establishment of SAARC.
During 1960’s and 70s the tendency towards regional arrangements became much more prominent despite many hurdles. The emergence of Bangladesh and the Simla Agreement of 1972, became the turning points towards regional cooperation. President Zia-ur-Rahaman discussed the issue of regional co-operation with the new Indian Prime Minister, Moraji Desai.
He had also informally discussed the idea of regional co-operation with the leaders of South Asian countries during the regional and international meetings. Several factors seem to have influenced President Zia-Ur-Rahaman regarding the establishment of a regional organisation in South Asia during 1975-1979.
For Zia-Ur-Rahaman’s successful contribution in the process of Regional Organisations in South Asia, he is called as the founding father of SAARC. Between 1980 and 1983, four meetings at the Foreign Secretary level took place to establish the principles of organisation and identify areas for co-operation. Several Foreign Ministers level meetings were held between 1983 and 1985.
The first meeting of Foreign Ministers in New Delhi was held on 1st and 2nd of August 1983. In her inaugural address, the then Prime Minister of India Mrs Indira Gandhi described South Asia as a troubled region and said “I am glad we are making a beginning, we have our political differences, but economic co-operation will give a strong impetus to closer friendship and greater stability in South Asia.
With unity, we can hope to move ahead for future freedom, peace and prosperity.” She also warned that we should be ever vigilant against the attempts of external powers influencing our functioning. SAARC marks the establishment of an Association to promote and develop co-operation. Finally, the first Summit meeting of the Heads of States or Governments of South Asian countries was held at Dhaka on 7th and 8th of December 1985.
Its members are 8 countries of South Asia, namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Ip 2010, Afghanistan became the 8th member of SAARC. Six observers of SAARC are China, Japan, European Union, Republic of Korea, United States and Iran.
What are the areas of disputes between India and Sri Lanka?
From the mid 1950s to early 1980s, there was hardly any dispute between the two countries on matters of security
and sovereignty. There had been negotiated settlement of bilateral issues e.g. the question of jurisdiction over Kachathivu Island in the middle of the Palk Straits. One of the main disputes between India and SriLanka has been regarding the political status of Tamil people of Indian origin taken to SriLanka by the british as plantation labourers. There are four groups of Sri Lankan Tamil population,
- ancient Tamils in the Jaffna peninsula,
- professional elite Tamil in urban areas
- non-Hindu Tamils and
- Tamil immigrant labour.
The long standing problem of accepting the Tamil speaking population of Sri Lanka as its citizens and giving them
regional autonomy could not be solved. The majority of Sinhalese demanded that Tamils should return to India. They denie citizenship to Tamils by enacting the Ceylon Citizenship Act of 1948. This has disentitled them franchise and others rights.
In 1965 Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Sri Lankan Prime Minister Mrs. Sirimao Bandaranaike signed an agreement about Tamils citizenship, but in vain. In 1981, agreement between Indira Gandhi and Sirimao Bandaranaike was not implemented due to the Tamil people’s refusal to return to India.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the nature of party system in India.
The nature of Indian party system can. be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against the British Imperialism. Due to ideological differences, Muslim League was founded in 1906.
Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India, Forward Block and Praja Socialist Party etc., emerged in the successive years. Later, in the post independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power etc were floated.
1. Extra Constitutional growth :
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about M how many political parties are to exist in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi-party system:
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the mainstream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger:
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of a single-party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single-party era.
5. Dissident activities:
Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favouritism, nepotism lead to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJR Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During the 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario, e.g. DMK, ALADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena, National Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Governments.
10. Religious, Lingual and Regionalism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, AIADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rashtriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties:
Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system form the right front.
12. The era of the coalition
When no single political party secures absolute majority like minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977 when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the centre along with other parties. This was followed by National Front, United Front, NDA, UPA etc.
Describe the causes for Labour Movement and explain its political implications.
Labourers are those workers who invest their physical labour either on agriculture or industries. The wages they get for their work is their livelihood. But in most of the cases, they are not getting the mininum wages and they work under hazardous conditions which many a times takes their lives as toll. For want of congenial working conditions and adequate wages, they unite together and go for agitations.
1. Interest of Labourers:
Generally the industrialists concentrate on their profit rather than on workers and their welfare. Labourers are exploited by way of giving lesser wages, not declaring bonus, extended hours of work, denial of medical facilities, dismissal from service and the like. To overcome such situations, the affected labourers organize and voice their grievances through agitations which leads to labour movement. During 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was organised and got legal recognition by the British Government.
2. Negligence towards employees:
The matters concerning to labourers were decided U unilaterally by the Apex body of the Company. Naturally, the interests of labourers were neglected. As a result, hostile relationship was the order of the day.
3. To get facilities:
As the labourers are engaged in monotonous physical strain they need to have a break in between. To get proper facilities for both male and female workers as per their requirements like potable water, cafeteria, toilet facilities, restrooms, creaches, medical facilities etc., movements have started.
4. Welfare programs:
The fate of the companies depends upon the welfare and well being of the workers. To get the social security measures like Bonus, Allowances, Loans, insurance, Free quarters, Transport and Educational facilities, workmen compensation, pension, family pension etc., they came together to form organisations that paved the way for labour movements.
To meet the demands of work and to provide welfare programmes the Government has taken some measures and they are:-
1. Constitutional measures:
Part IV of the Indian Constitution which deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy directs State Government to adopt socialist measures like equal pay for equal work for both men and women and to provide leave facilities for pregnant women for both prenatal and postnatal care. The Concurrent list empowers the governments to legislate on workers welfare.
2. Government of India has made legislation on personal labour laws as follows:
The labour laws of 1970 have fixed the wages of workers appointed on contract basis. Workmen Compensation
Act of 1923, Salary payment Act of 1936, Weekly Holiday Act of 1942, Minimum wage Act of 1948, Employees State Insurance Act of 1948. Employees Provident Fund Act of 1952, Bonus Act of 1965 are some of the important labour acts.
Some prominent labour orgnisations are:
1. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC):
With the belief in Socialistic pattern of Society, this started in 1920. It was working as a Labour Union and came under the grip of communists after independence. Its aim was nationalising the industries, protection of labour rights, labour welfare etc.,
2. Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC):
Because of ideological differences, some congressmen came out of AITUC and started INTUC in May 1947 with
the support of Congress party on non-violent philosophy.
3. Bharateeya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS):
Founded by Dattopanth Thengdi for upholding the patriotic spirit among the labour population during 1955 on the Birthday of Sri Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It is not affiliated to any International Trade Union Confederation. An estimated 5860 labour unions are affiliated to BMS and it is one of the largest central Trade Unions of India according to the 2002 statistics of Ministry of Labour.
4. Centre for Trade Union (CITU):
Communist leaders like S.A Dange and E.M.S. Namboodaripad took the stand to oppose the imperialistic attitude of the trade unions. In 1964, Marxists started CITU because of differences between leftist and rightist ideologies of AITUC. West Bengal, Kerala, Tripura are the Marxist strongholds.
5. Other major organisations:
Hindu Mazdoor Sabha (HMS), Hindu Mazdoor Panchayath (HMP), United Trade Union Congress (UTUC) and other organisations are also struggling hard to protect the interests of labourers.
In total, Labour Movements are trying to improve the welfare and standard of living of the workers. The success of these movements can be seen through Government programmes. As Karl Marx said, “Unite the workers of the world, you are going to lose shackles of slavery, but nothing else.”
The celebration of May Day throughout the world on 1st May of every year proves the significance of labour force and the movement.
Explain the causes for the communalism and write about the measures to eradicate communalism.
Communalism is an ideology of the followers of one particular religion, witnessed as a homogenous and distinct group, disrespecting other religions.
1. Policy of British India:
The discriminatory policies of the East India Company regarding divide and rule destroyed the unity between Hindus and Muslims. It manifested in the Sepoy Mutiny (1857). During the period of Viceroy Lord Curzon, Bengal was divided (1905) on the basis of religion. Communal electorate for Muslims was introduced during the period of Lord Minto. All these intensified the cause of communalism.
2. Hind-Muslim Nationalism:
Communal organizations were formed by separatists. In 1906, Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha came into existence. Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was called as ‘Muslim Gokhale’ of India was brainwashed by the Britishers. He became the champion of the two nation theory based on religion. Extremists of the Indian National Congress began to assert their demands. These developments created suspicion and distrust between Hindus and Muslims before Independence.
3. Communal Riots:
Large scale communal riots took place in India after Independence. Religious minorities both in India and Pakistan became victims during this situation and were attacked and tortured. Later communal riots occurred in Bhagalpur, Meerut, Kanpur. Lucknow, Ayodhya, Ahmadabad, Mumbai and in many other places. The demolition of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya by a mob on 6th December 1992, largely contributed for the animosity between Hindus and Muslims and the successive events intensified the mistrust between these communities.
4. Politically manipulated:
In India, many issues are politically manipulated by leaders for their selfish gain. This leads to hatred among the communities.
5. Communality in organization:
Different communities in India have established their own organizations based on communality, to support particular political parties in their own interest.
Promotion of secularism and National integration as remedy:
The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides that every religious denpmination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs.
In December 2013, the Central Cabinet approved the “Prevention of Communal Violence (Access to justice and Reparations) Bill” to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by parliament.
2. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It is in a limited sense to call this a single nation because it has various religions, languages, castes cultures etc., So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary.
To preserve and sustain National integration many provisions have been adopted in the Constitution, like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National security Council and armed forces play a greater role in the protection of National integration.
3. Neighbourhood Peace Committees:
The aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition and subsequent communal riots and social tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish Neighbourhood Peace Committees with eminent or.prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas, taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes, in the aftermath of conflict restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people, establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Explain the relationship between India and Russia.
Russia is the world’s largest country extending halfway around the globe. To the west, it borders Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Belarus. The much longer southern frontier extends into Central Asia. India’s relation with the former USSR has been a part of history, but it developed rapidly after the visits of Khrushchev and Bulganin to India and Nehru’s visit to the Soviet Union.
Since 1955, Indo- Soviet relations have reached a new scale and dimension and regarded as a good example of bilateral and inter-state relations. The Soviets have openly declared that Indo-Soviet friendship has become a part of their ‘tradition’. People to people relationship is a comer stone of their foreign policy. Soviet Union contributed immensely for the development of industries and technology in India. The defence ties between the two countries helped India in building a credible defence structure.
Its steadfast diplomatic support in the UN, on the Kashmir and Goa issues, is commendable. The use of Veto-power in the Security Council to support India in 1971 war with Pakistan was crucial. Soviet Russia adopted the Communist ideology and India accepted Democratic Socialism. Despite the ideological differences, the two countries forged a long time Treaty of friendship for 20 years.
Factors of Indo-USSR close ties:
- Both India and USSR consider that the peaceful settlement of disputes between states as most crucial for the future of human race.
- Both believe in natural freedom and social equality as prerequisite of just world order.
- Support to liberation movements across the world are recognized by both the countries.
- Both Countries opposed all forms of colonialism, imperialism, and racial discrimination.
Thus, India and USSR have realized geopolitical significance and the need to strengthen bilateral ties. This is to ensure the settlement of regional problems and establishment of global peace and prosperity.
1. Disintegration of Soviet Union:
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of USSR introduced economic and political reforms of ‘Perestroika’(restructuring ) and ‘Glasnost (openness). That stopped the arms race with US, withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan, helped the unification of Germany, ended the cold war.
Other weaknesses inherent in the Soviet Union led to the disintergration of USSR and formation of 15 new countries in 1991. India recognized all of them as Sovereign states and established new diplomatic relations. Ten of them joined together to form a new associations with Russia called (CIS) (Commonwealth of Independent States).
2. Bilateral relations:
The new leadership in Russia and other Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union hold India in high regard due to India’s secular approach to politics, its stable democratic system of assuring rights and equality to all its citizens, self reliant industrial and conomic base and its genuine concern for vital global issues e.g. peace, disarmament, economic development, human rights and democratization of international organization particularly of the UN and its agencies.
Russia continues its support to India to become a permanent member in UN Security Council. India and Russia both have multi faceted relationship involving strategic and high level cooperation. The process of bilateral annual summits has given great impetus to bilateral relations. Indo- Russia cooperation has continued to move stronger on the basis mutual interest, faith, friendship and past relations.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
List out the States of India. Write a note on Gandhi Jayanthi being celebrated as “Swachatha Divas”.
Our Prime Minister, Sri Narendra Modi launched our country’s biggest ever cleanliness drive on Gandhiji’s birth anniversary in 2014. It is a well known fact that among other things Gandhiji advocated cleanliness in every walk of our lives, be it personal hygiene, behaviour in public places, public administration, political field or public life of our leaders.
This drive is a five year Abhiyan – a campaign to clean India at every level. It is expected to cost over two lakh crores. Sri Modi publicly acknowledged the fact that Gandhiji’s dream of a clean India – in more senses than one, has remained unfulfilled so far. It is the bounden duty of every citizen of our country to motivate themselves to stand behind our Prime Minister in carrying out this operation of cleaning up every comer of the country.
Instead of declaring Gandhi Jayanthi of 2014 a holiday as has been the practice till now, Sri Modi expressed the idea of making it a full working day for Government employees to carry out the Swachatha Divas in the correct sense. The bureaucrats were given instructions to lead their department staff in cleaning their offices and surroundings including toilets.
Corruption is a menace to Democracy
1. Power Politics:
Today Nehru’s ‘Goodness Politics’ is replaced by ‘Power Politics’. Money power muscle power has become dominant. Politics has become a gainful profession to make money and to get publicity which is a prime example of political corruption.
2. Criminalization of Politics:
The prevalence of large scale criminalization of politics has increased illegal and illegitimate expenditure on elections. As the scenario is rampant, it has become a menace to democracy.
3.Demoralization of Bureaucracy:
Corruption takes the form of favouritism, red tapism and nepotism. Destabilization of governments due to illegal political operations and administrative corruption by bureaucracy has become a major threat to democracy.
4. Violations of Social Justice:
Accumulation of wealth through corruption getting concentrated in only a few people, violates the principle of socio- economic justice. Such people enjoy luxurious life, hence majority suffer from poverty due to deprivation. This creates socio-economic inequality and imbalance which is against democratic values.
Write a note on “India Against Corruption” headed by Anna Hazare.
Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan the pioneer of the total revolution, inspired youth during 1970’s to revolt against the corrupt administration and travelled all over India to fight against the evil. During 1980s, All Assam Student’s Union (AASU) fought against the corruption which threatened North Eastern States.
Today, the mood of the country especially the mood of youth is against corruption on war footing. The war against corruption is perceived the mother of all wars. Anti corruption movement gathered moment when Anna Hazare kick started the movement and gave a call to the youth to join him in a fight against corruption under the banner of India against corruption. (IAC)
Youth against corruption:
Independent India has seen scams like-Bofors, Fodder scam, Share Market scam etc., where billions of rupees of public money has been swindled by unscrupulous people. Inspite of exposure of these scams, corruption still persists in all walks of life including education, health, administration and politics.
The overall effect of the youth movement against corruption is the creation of the institution of Lokpal, passing of Acts like Right to Information (RTI), Right to Education (RTE), Sakaal, introduction of transparency in election funding etc.