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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2017
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Who wrote Buddhacharitha?
Buddacharita was written by Ashwagosha.
Who was the 23rd Thirthankara?
Which was the capital of Kanishka?
Purushapura (Peshawar in Pakistan) was the capital of Kanishka.
Who composed the Allahabas Pillar – inscription?
What is meant by Kuduvalai?
The representatives of the people (members) for the village administration were elected through a lucky draw system which was called “Kuduvalai.”
Which was the new religion introduced by Akbar?
Din-e-Ilahi was the religion introduced by Akbar in 1581 C.E.
Name the philosophy of Ramanujacharya.
Sri Vaishnava or Vishistadvaitha Philosophy was expounded by Ramanujacharya.
Why did Queen Laxmibai of Jhansi revolt against British?
The British refused to recognize her adopted son as the ruler of Jhansi.
Who propounded the Drain theory?
Dadabai Naoroji propounded the Drain theory.
Who built Krishnaraja Sagara Dam?
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Name any two sites of the Neolithic age.
The neolithic sites are Maski in Raichur, Cauvery basin, Bellary and Mysore in Karnataka, Salem and Tirunelveli in Tamilnadu, Hyderabad, and Kumool in A.P., Kathewar in Gujarat, Sindh, Bundelkhand, Kashmir, West Bengal, Orissa, etc.,
Name any two Vedas.
The four vedas are
- Rig veda,
- Yajur veda,
- Sama veda,
- Atharvana veda.
Why was the fourth Buddhist council held? When?
- 1st Buddhist council was held circa 487 BCE at Rajagriha.
- 2nd Buddhist council was held circa 387 BCE at Vaishali.
- 3rd Buddhist council was held circa 251 BCE in Pataliputra.
- 4th Buddhist council was held circa 100 CE in Kashmir.
Who was Fa-Hien? Why did he come to India?
Fa-Hien was a Chinese pilgrim, who visited India during the reign of Chandragupta-II. He came to India to study Buddhism.
Name any two famous musicians of Mughal period.
Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the famous musicians.
Mention any two titles ofVishnuvardhana.
Talakadugonda, Kadanaprachanda, Kanchigonda, Viraganga,Maleperulganda, Mahamandaleshwara, Satyaratnakara, Veeranarayana were the titles of Vishnuvardhana.
Who were the parents of Shivaji?
Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai were the parents of Shivaji.
Where is Golgumbaz and who built it?
Gol – Gumbaz is in Bijapur. It was built by Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah.
Who founded Anubhavamantapa and where?
Basaveshwara at Kalyana
Name any two trading centres of Portuguese in India.
Goa (Capital), Diu, Daman, Salsette, Bassein, Bombay, Calicut, Cochin, Machalipattanam, Santhome, etc., were the trading centers of the Portuguese in India.
What was the opinion of MeCauly regarding the Eastern Literature?
Macaulay said, “A single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native Literature of Indian and Arabia”.
Name the two important Commissioners of Mysore.
Mark Cubbon and Lewis Bentham Bowring were two important Commissioners of Mysore.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
‘Unity in Diversity’ is the unique features of Indian History, Explain.
India is the 7th largest country in area and the second-most populous country in the world. The special features of Indian history are :
1. Continuity of civilization and culture:
India has one of the earliest histories in the world. The physical features of our country, full of variety, richness and contrasts tend to divide India into different local zones. However, it has 4000 years of continuous history and continuity of civilization and culture, like China.
2. Evolution in phases :
Its has developed in various stages with necessary improvements. We find a connecting link of events from the Indus to the Vedic period, Vedic to Islamic and Christian influences.
3. Foreign invasions:
The natural barriers on the frontiers of India provided security from foreign invasions. However, foreigners like Greeks, Persians, Huns, Shakas, Arabs, Turks, Kushans, Afghans, and others entered India from the Khyber and Bolan passes. All these invaders contributed to the Indian culture.
The historical monuments and other structures like Forts built by these invaders are attracting tourists even today. South India had immunity from such invasions and developed a distinct culture of its own.
4. Religious tolerance (Dominant and tolerant . Hindu faith):
India is home for Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Muslims, Parsis, Christians and several tribal faiths and practices. Indians believe in the concept of ‘Vasudhaivaka kutumbakam’ and ‘Sarve janaha sukhino bhavantu which means that the whole world is one family and let all the people be happy.
5. Indian contributions to the world:
India has contributed immensely in the fields of literature, philosophy, science, art, culture, architecture, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, etc., UNO has recognized more than 30 Indian historical sites as centers of world heritage, such as the Hill forts of Rajasthan, Khujaraho, Konark, Tajmahal, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi, Ajanta, Ellora, Hampi, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Madurai, Kanchi, Churches of Goa, etc.,
Yoga, Ayurveda, and other artistic specimens are the special contributions of Indians to the world. The great contributions of Indian mathematicians haye enriched the world with the concept of zero and the decimal system. The ancient universities of Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, Prayag, Vikramshila, Kashi and Kanchi attracted students from different countries of the world. India was at the height of its intellectual and spiritual glory.
6. Unity in diversity :
India possesses diverse physical and geographical features and also shows diversity racially, linguistically, socially, economically, religiously and almost in every sphere of human activities. In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying forces that have kept India united.
Explain the town planning of Indus civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.
Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually in side alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bath room was constructed nearest to the street, so that the waste water drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
4. Drainage system :
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was, connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level.
The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus people had perfected the underground drainage system.
5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them.
On all sides of the pool, there were steps. Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and fresh water was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
6. The Granary (Warehouse) :
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was’ used to store the grains collected.
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people -carried on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
What were the measures taken by Ashoka for the spread of Buddhism?
The greatness of Ashoka is not only due to his territorial expansion, but for his moral greatness and the practical ethics which he propagated. The Kalinga war was a turning point in the life of Ashoka.
Seeing the extent of the loss of human life and bloodshed, Ashoka was filled with sorrow and vowed to stop ‘Digvijaya or Bheri Ghosha (Beating of war drums) and to take up ‘Dharmavijaya’ (Winning the hearts of the people).
He declared “The Chief conquest is the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha, and Dharmas.
The intention of Ashoka was to spread Buddhism not only in India but also outside India. He took many measures for the same. They were :
1. He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha such as Lumbini, Kapilavastu. Gaya, Saranath and arranged discourses on religion.
2. He constructed a large number of monasteries all over the Empire and gave liberal grants for such institutions.
3. He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rocks, pillars and on the walls of the caves throughout his Empire.
4. Ashoka appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas, and Rajjukas to spread Buddhism among people. He also appointed Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to take care of women and bring religious awareness among them.
5. He organised the 3rd Buddhist Council at Pataliputra which was presided by MoggaliputraTissa in 250 BCE. The purpose was to settle the differences among the Buddhists.
6. Ashoka sent missionaries to preach Buddhism in Afghanisthan, Burma, Srilanka, and Europe. He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamithra to Srilanka with a Bodhi Sapling as a symbol of peace.
7. He undertook many welfare activities like digging of wells, building rest houses, planting of fruit bearing trees, etc., He constructed hospitals for men and animals. He made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled persons. His aim was “Service and Sacrifice”.
Ashoka believed that a moral life was the pre-requisite for a happy life. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and a good moral life.
On account of his extensive propagation, Buddism became a religion of the masses in India and it also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma, and many South-east Asian countries and thus became a world religion during his period.
Write about the contributions of Chalukyas of Badami to art and architecture.
1. Art and Architecture:
The Chalukyas of Badami, have given some noteworthy contributions to the Indian art and architecture. Building of Sthambha, Navaranga, and Sukhanasi along With the Garbhagruha (Sanctum) were the unique contributions of the Chalukyas in temple architecture.
The Chalukyas developed their own style of architecture known as Vesara or new style or Chalukyan style of architecture, which was a combination of the Nagara style and Dravidian style. They built many temples. The chalukyan art took its birth at Aihole and developed in Badami and Pattadakallu.
The great art critic Percy Brown remarked that Aihole was “The cradle of Indian temple Architecture” and Dr. Shivarama Karanth has commented about Chalukyan period as the “Golden age of Karnataka Art”.
Important Characteristics of Chalukyan Architecture:
Chalukyas adopted the following features in their constrution of temples. They are :
- Small base design
- Horse shoe base
- Square sanctum (Garbhagruha)
- Inner pradakshanapatha
- Mukhamantapa, Navaranga, Sukhanasi and Pyramidical Tower on the Sanctum
- Ekakuta, (one cell) Dwikuta and Trikuta temples.
The Chalukyan monuments could be broadly classified into two major categories viz.,
- Rock – cut (Cave) temples
- The structural temples.
1. Rock-cut (cave) temples :
Mangalesha and Kirthivarma built the 4 rock-cut temples on the hill at Badami. Two of them are dedicated to Vishnu, one to Shiva and the other is a Jain temple. These are connected to one another by a causeway. These caves contain a varanda with stone pillars, a hall with columns and small deeply cut garbhagrihas.
These temples have gigantic images of Ardhanarishwara, Harihara, Mahishasuramardhini, Vishnu seated on the serpent, Narasimha, Trivikrama and Nataraja.
The Jain cave has the sculptures of Mahaveera and the 23rd Jain Thirthanakara. Probably, the ceillings of the caves had paintings, which have faded away over time. In fact, the Chalukyas were the first to construct rock-cut temples in south India.
Rock-cut temples at Aihole:
There are two rock-cut temples at Aihole. One is for Shiva and other is a Jain one. These rock-cut temples have a square mantapa and have a special plan of their own.
2. The structural temples:
The Chalukyas have built more than 100 temples. Badami, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Mahakuta, etc, are religious as well as architectural centres of the Badami Chalukyas. The Shiva temple at Gokak, Mahalakshmi temple at Kollapura are examples of early Chalukyan architecture.
The Chalukyan temples, in the beginning, had flat or slightly inclined roof tops. Later, tower-like structural levels appeared. A big prayer hall, sanctum and an intervening room (Sukanasi) were included in the temple structure.
a. Aihole :
Aihole contains over 70 temples. The structural temples of Aihole, represent the best of Chalukyan temple architecture. Thus Percy Brown rightly called Aihole as the cardie of Indian temple architecture.
b. Lankan temple :
Among the most important temples, Ladhkhan Temple is one of the earliest. A muslim saint by name Ladhkhan lived here for a long time and so people started calling it as Ladhkhan temple. It contains a Mukhamantapa, and a Garbhagruha with a Nandi idol. The tower lies not above the Sanctum, but over the centre of the temple.
c. The Durga temple:
This temple is designed like a horse shoe and a Buddhist Chaityalaya. There is a Rangamantapa with two rows of pillars and the verandas on the two sides go till the Garbhagruha and merge in a semicircle. The temple is surrounded by a fort wall and so it is called the fort (Durga) temple. The back view of the temple resembles the posterior view of an elephant. The Shikara resembles the Shikara of the Orissa temples.
d. The Huchimalli temple :
This temple contains the Shikara (Tower) of the Nagara style, It has square pillars and simple construction details. This is a very special feature of Chalukyan architecture.
e. Meguthi Jain temple:
Built by Ravikirthi near Aihole, has a sanctum and two platforms built in the Dravidian style. The other important temples of Aihole are Jyothirlinga, Mallikarjuna, and Siddheswara, etc.,
f. Pattadakallu :
The ancient name of Pattadakallu was ‘Kisuvolalu’. 10 temples of Badami Chalukyas are here. The Virupaksha or Lokeshwara temple is quite a famous one. This was built by Lokamadevi. (Queen of Vikramaditya – II). The architect of this temple was Anirvathachari Gunda.
It contains two main entrances at the east and west. In front of the Nandi mantapa, on either side of the big platform, there are two Sanctums. Next is the main garbhagruha, where a Shivalinga is installed with a pradakshanapatha. Above these, there is a tower built in the Dravidian style. The temple is 224 ft long and 150 ft broad.
g. Mallikarjuna or TVilokeshwara Temple:
was built by Trilokamadevi, the other queen of Vikramaditya – II.’ Papanatha, Karisiddeshwara, and Jambulingeshwara temples are in the Nagar style. Sangameshwara, Virupaksha, and Mallikarjuna temples are in the Dravidian (Pallava) style.
Explain the life and teachings of Shankaracharya.
1. Early life of Shankaracharya (788-820 C.E.) :
Shankaracharya was the exponent of Advaitha (Non-duality) Philosophy. He was born at Kaladi in Kerala in 788 C.E. His parents were Shivaguru and Aryambha. He was inclined towards spiritualistic life and became a sanyasi with the permission of his mother. Shankara went in search of a spiritual teacher. He met his teacher Govinda Bhagwathpada on the banks of the river Narmada.
He studied under him, and very soon his teacher found in Shankara, great qualities to attain the highest spiritual knowledge. He toured the whole of India – from Kashmir to Kanyakumari three times on foot. Wherever he went, he expounded his Advaitha Philosophy. He made a spiritual U conquest of India. He earned the titles of ^ Sarvajna and Jagadguru.
2. Works of Shankaracharya :
Shankara wrote commentaries on Brahmasutra, the Upanishads and the Bhagvadh Geetha. He composed Viveka Chudamani, Shivananda Lahari, Ananda Lahari, Soundarya Lahari, Bhajagovindam, Badaramayana, Geetha Bhashya, etc.
3. Establishment of the four mathas :
To spread the Advaitha Philosophy, Shankaracharya established four mathas in the four directions of the country. They are :
- Govardhana Peetha at Puri (Orissa – east),
- Kalika Peetha at Dwaraka (Gujarath – west),
- Jyothirmatha at Badarinath (U. P. – north),
- Sharada Peetha at Sringeri (Karnataka – south).
4. Advaitha (or Monoism) Philosophy :
Shankaracharya’s contribution to Indian culture is the Advaitha Philosophy. Advaitha means nonduality or monoism. The main features of the Advaitha propounded by Shakaracharya are:
1. The Universal Soul (God or Brahma) and the individual Soul are inseparable. They are one and the same.
2. By Jnana Marga (knowledge), individual Soul ultimately merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma). This may be called as salvation (Moksha). There is no duality between them.
3. The individual Soul has no independent existence. The individual Soul merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma) through Sadhana. It is a part of Brahma and the ultimate reality is Brahma. That is why Shankara said ‘I am Brahma’ (Aham Brahmasmi).
4. Brahma is the ultimate truth. It is Nirguna, which means it has no predefined or specific qualities. It is Nirakara which means it has no shape or form of any kind and Swaprakashaka which means self evident.
5. ‘Brahma Sathya, Jaga Mithya’ – It means Universal Soul (Brahma) is the ultimate reality and world is an illusion or Maya. To an ordinary man, the world appears to be real, because of ignorance.
Shankaracharya advocated ‘Jnana Marga’ (path of knowledge), to attain salvation (Moksha). The combined the path of Karma and Bhakti with Jnana. He strived to unity the different cults, by giving equal importance to the worship of Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha, Kumara, and Shakti. Therefore he is called as ‘Shanmatha Sthapanacharya’.
Discuss the personalities of Swami Vivekananda.
1. Swami Vivekananda :
He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and BhuvaneshWari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He studied both Indian and western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influnce of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
2. World religious conferance at Chicago-31st May 1893 :
Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the world. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference’ at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America….”
This won over the hearts of the people. He described Hinduism as the mother of all. religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization. He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts. For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
3. Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta:
The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society.
The Mission started several Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages and old age homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, etc., Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses.
He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth”.
4. Social and religious reforms :
Vivekananda condemned the caste system, rituals, ceremonies, and superstitions. He stressed the need for social reforms. He preached tolerance, equality, and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women and eradication of poverty.
5. National Awakening :
Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous call “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal is reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation.
He has been popularly called as the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedantha Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as listed below.
1. Political Unity and Uniform Administration:
The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept that “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.
2. Impact of English Education :
A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indians began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe. By the study of English literature and history, educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. English language was the language of communication for the national leaders.
3. Discrimination against Indians :
The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs).
The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts oh the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented. Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent . among the educated class.
4. Role of Indian press and literature :
The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticised the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu, Patriot, etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings.
Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English’and the vernacular languages. Scholars like R. G. Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller, Monier Williams, and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India.
The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self-confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.
5. The Economic Policy of the British :
The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.
6. Network of Communication :
The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule, etc., to establish political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontent with the British policies.
The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and comer of the country and made propaganda.
Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. The above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.
Briefly discuss the unification movement of Karnataka.
The Independence to India Act of 1947 provided for the formation of India and Pakistan. 562 Princely States were given the option of either joining India or Pakistan or could remain Independent. Our first Home Minister Sardar Vallababhai Patel (Indian Bismark) persuaded the Princely states to join the Indian Union.
But the Rulers of Hyderabad, Junagad, and Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union. At that moment, Sardar Vallababhai Patel skillfully handled the situation and merged these Princely States into the Indian Union.
After the merger of Hyderbad, the ruling Government agreed to create Andhra Pradesh which would bring together all Telugu speaking people. Andhra province could not be formed.
In Andhra, people started agitations for the formation of Andhra state and Potti Sriramalu undertook a fast unto death for this cause and he died (58 days) in 1952. The unrest spread to many other provinces which wanted unification of provinces on the basis of linguistic and cultural unity. Kannada speaking regions also wanted unification and formation of a separate state.
Some important factors like newspaper editorials, Cultural and Political organizations, poets, Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee, recommendations of national leaders, etc., infused the provincial feeling in the minds of Kannadigas. The Government appointed the Dhar Committee in 1948 to look into the question of the Reorganization of states.
The committee’s report did not favour the formation, of states on linguistic grounds and opined that it was detrimental to the national integration. The people were discontented and agitations continued. The J.V.P. Committee (Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel, and Pattabi Sitharamaiah) was formed in 1949.
That committee. agreed to the formation of Andhra but refused the formation of Karnataka. Andanappa Doddameti resigned from the Bombay Assembly and started a fast demanding the unification of Kannada speaking regions.
State Reorganization Committee (S.R.C.) was formed in 1953. It consisted of Fazl Ali as (Chairman) and H. M. Kunjru and K.M. Panikkar were its members.
The Committee toured all over the state, interviewed thousands of people, studied their petitions and submitted its report on 30th September 1955. As per its report, with some modifications the integrated Mysore State came into being on 1st November 1956. The first Chief Minister of Mysore state was S. Nijalingappa. Mysore state was renamed as Karnataka on 1st November 1973 under the Chief Ministership of D. Devaraja Urs.
Integrated Karnataka – 1956
The Kannada speaking areas that were integrated on 1st November 1956.
I. Mysore Provinces (Old Mysore State) had 9 Districts.
II. From Bombay Presidency:
- Karwar (North Canara)
III. From Madras Presidency (State) :
- South Canara (Mangalore)
- Coorg (Kodagu)
IV. From Hyderabad Presidency (State) :
V. From Independent States :
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
Out of the 20 places any 8 will be asked of which students have to mark 5 places on the outline map of India. Five marks will be awarded for marking the places correctly and five marks for writing the historical importance of each marked place in two sentences.
1. Taxila (Takshashila) :
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya (Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.
2. Agra :
It is situated on the banks of river Jamuna in U.P. It was founded by Sikandar Lodhi. It became the capital of Akbar. Taj Mahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
3. Calcutta :
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected sea water and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
It is located on the banks of river Cauvery and is in the Mandya district. It was the capital of the early Wodeyars of Mysore, Hyder Ali and Tippusultan. The town contains many historical monuments like the Fort, Daria Daulat place, Lalbag, Tombs of Hyder and Tippu, Ranganatha Temple, etc.
6. Halebeedu :
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.
7. Bidar :
It was the capital city of the Bahamani Kingdom. Here Mahamud Gawan built a Madarasa.
8. Kanchi (Kanchipuram):
It is near Chennai in TamilNadu. It was the capital of the Pallavas. The city is famous for Shaiva and Vaishanava temples. The famous Kamakshi temple is located here.
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
B. Explain the causes and results of the first war of independence.
The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule.
This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company. The spark of patriotism was kindled in a millitary unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt :
1. Political causes :
The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule.
Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
2. Administrative causes :
The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus and Muslims.
Indians were not given higher posts in the administration, and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
3. Economic causes :
Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India ecomonically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods.
Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot. Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts.
Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation”.
4. Social causes :
Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated, Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices, etc., caused a- lot of unrest among the orthodox people.
The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them.
They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
5. Religious causes :
The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods.
The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions. Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced intermarriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity.
Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
6. Military causes:
Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani).
The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
7. Immediate causes:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys p felt that the British were trying to spoil their and were clear signs of westernization.
The religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt :
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far reaching results. They are :
1. End of the Company rule :
The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858 :
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
3. Reorganization of the Army :
The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
4. Unity among Indians :
The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
5. Source of Inspiration :
The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
Describe the cultural contributions of Rastrakutas.
1. Cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas Religion:
Rashtrakuta rulers practised religious tolerance towards all religions. Even though they were followers of the vedic religion, they also patronised Jainism and Buddhism. Amoghavarsha was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalaxmi. They granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions.
Rashtrakutas constructed a number of temples in Malkehda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwar, Naregal, Jogeshwar, Ellora, etc., in different parts of their Kingdom. Brahmanas were engaged to perform yagnas and yagas. Kings respected them and gave them money generously.
2. Development of literature :
The Rashtrakuta period witnessed great literary activity 1n both Kannada and Sanskrit. Amogahavarsha himself was a scholar and he wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit. He patronised scholars like Jinasenacharya who wrote Adipurana and Parshwabhyudaya, Mahaveeracharya who wrote Ganita Sara Sangraha and Shakatayana who was the author of Shabdanushasana.
Srivijaya wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, which was the earliest work of Kannada literature. It refers to the fact that Karnataka extended from Cauvery to Godavari. Asaga wrote Vardhamana Purana, Halayudha wrote Kavirahasya and Murata Sanjeevini and Trivikrama wrote Madalasachampu.
3. Pampa was given patronage by Arikeshari –
II. Pampa is respected as the ‘Adikavi’ of Kannada. He wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya (Pampabharatha) and Adipurana (Champu Work). Ponna was called ‘Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi’ and he lived in the court of Krishna – III. He wrote Bhuvanaika Ramabhyudaya, Jinaksharamala, and Shanthinathapurana.
Pushpadantha wrote Mahapurana and Nayakumar Charite. Shivakotyacharya wrote Vaddaradhane, which is accepted as the first prose work of old Kannada. Harisena and Gunabhadra Were other well known writers.
4. Art and Architeture :
The contributions of the Rashtrakutas to the field of art and architecture are memorable. The architectural monuments of the Rashtrakutas are found at Ellora, Elephanta, Naregal, Malkheda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwara, Jogeshwari, Mandapeshwara, etc.,
The Pallava (Dravidian) style of architecture was adopted by the Rashtrakutas. Temples were built consisting of Pradakshanapatha, Mukhamantapa, Sabhamantapa, Antarala, and Garbhagruha.
The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rockcut (Cave) shrines at Ellora, Ajantha, and Elephanta. There are 34 cave temples at Ellora. They belong to Buddhist, Hindu and Jain deties.
5. The Kailasanatha Temple:
The most extensive temple is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora, (Aurangabad Dist) built by Krishna -1 in the 8th century C.E. The temple is divided into four main parts. It was carved out of a single rock. This storied temple is supported by life – size elephants at the base.
It is 276 ft long, 154 feet wide and 107 feet deep. On the walls of the temples are the figures like Ravana lifting mount Kailasa, adorned with Nandi, Vishnu, Bairava, Laxmi, Shiva and Parvathi which attracts one’s attention.
There are other such scenes of carvings in bas relief like Shiva in dancing pose and Vishnu and Lakshmi listening to the music. Some other noteworthy and famous rock cuts are Ravana’s cave, Rameshwara cave No. 21, Neelakharita cave, Jagannatha sabha, Dasavathara cave – 15, etc.,
6. Dashavatara Cave:
It consists of two storeys and the underground hall measures 97 ft × 50 ft. The sculptured figures of Vishnu and Shiva and the scene of death of Hiranyakashipu are excellent.
7. Elephanta Caves (Trimurthi Temple) :
Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It has a big hall, 130 feet long and 129 feet wide. It has three entrances leading to the hall. At the end of this hall is the garbhagruha with Linga.
Opposite to the central hall at the back, is the gigantic image of Thrimurthi which is 25 feet high. Dwarapalaka, Ardhanareshwara, Shiva – Parvathi and other bas – reliefs have been beautifully carved. The paintings in the cave temples of Ellora are a witness to the fact that the Rashtrakutas patronised paintings.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha. He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16.
A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage) resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world. He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes.
This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclution that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara (U.P.) at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste systerm. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires.
Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped, if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘F6ur Noble Truths or Aryasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow)
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace and enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
This path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings consitute the three pitakas.
Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieveing their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste systerm and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha. Pharma and Saneha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammed Bin Thughalak.
I. Administrative reforms (experiements) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue:
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were unable to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were :
a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.
Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE:
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase
the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance.
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and Common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictons’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
1. Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.):
Krishnadevaraya of the Tuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of Tuluva Narasanayaka and Nagaladevi. He came to the throne in 1509 C.E. The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.
Military achievements of Krishnadevaraya:
1. The war of 1510 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field.
Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces up to Govilkonda and once again, defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna-Tungabhadra doab area.
2. Siege of Ummatturu – 1513 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasamudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a new province with its head quarters at Srirangapattana.
3. Kalinga (Orissa) expedition – 1513-1518 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapathi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he seiged the Fort of Kondavidu and defeated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma.
Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telangana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathis, King Prataparudradeva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.
4. Battle of Raichur – 1520 C. E.:
When Krishnadevaraya was busily engaged in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapura recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishnadevaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.
5. Captured the Fort of Gulbarga – 1523:
Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went up to Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ’Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya’.
6. Relation with the Portuguese :
Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. He gave permission to the Portuguese to build a Fort at Bhatkal. Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes (1520 C.E.) visited the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanagara trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.
7. Peace in Ceylon:
There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There were revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son ofVijayabahu was brought to power.
8. Extend of his Empire:
The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanyakumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea in the West to the Bay of Bengal in the East.
9. Patronage to Literature:
Krishnadevaraya was not only a great Ruler but also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu, Jambavathi Kalyanam, Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Chari the and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eight Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’.
He honoured the great scholar Vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘Andra Kavi Pitamaha’. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati.
He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipungava, Kamatakandhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya, etc., The last days of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524 C. E., Krishnadevaraya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.
Give an account of Anglo-Marata War.
1. First Anglo-Maratha war (1775-1782):
In the civil war between Narayana Rao and his uncle Raghunath Rao, Narayana Rao was. killed, and his widow gave birth to a male child. The child, Savai Madhava Rao was supported by the Maratha chiefs. Raghunath Rao sought the help of the British. He signed the treaty of Surat in 1775, with the Bombay Governor Elphinstone to retain his position.
Raghunatha Rao and the British fought with the Maratha chiefs at Poona. But, Nana Fadnavis, the Prime minister of Peshwa Savai Madhava Rao, got the help of Governor-General Hastings at Calcutta and signed with him the Treaty of Purandhara in 1776.
According to that treaty:
- The British agreed to withdraw their support to Raghunatha Rao,
- Raghunath Rao was given a monthly pension of 25000/-from the Peshwa Government.
But this was not accepted by Elphinstone (Bombay Governor). He reopened the war and English forces were defeated and signed the Treaty of Wadagaon in 1779. Lord Hastings sent an army from Calcutta and battles were fought. Finally the Treaty of Salbai was concluded in 1782.
Treaty of Salbai in 1782 :
- Both the parties agreed to restore the captured territories
- There was peace for the next 20 years.
2. Second Anglo-Maratha war (1803-1806) :
Maratha chiefs of Holkar and Sindhia tried to control Peshwa Bajirao-II. Peshwa was greatly influenced by Mahadji Sindhia. So, Holkar waged a war and defeated the armies of Sindhia and Peshwa in 1802. Holkar placed Vinayaka Rao on the throne.
3. Treaty of Bastien :
- Peshwa signed the subsidiary Alliance and agreed to keep 6000 British soldiers and pay 26 Lakh every year for their upkeep.
- Peshwa surrendered the northern territories of his Kingdom to the British
- The Maratha Chieftains who were subordinates to Peshwa had become subordinates to the Company.
Sindhia and Bhonsle challenged the British power, and a series of battles were fought. The British. defeated them and both of them accepted subsidiary Alliance. Holkar also fought with the British and concluded the treaty of Rajpurghat and ceded Bundelkhand and Chambal to the British.
4. Third Anglo-Maratha war (1817-1818) :
Peshwa Baji Rao-II had lost his power and prestige. He decided to reorganise the Maratha confederacy and revive the lost glory of the Marathas. He also enlisted the support of the CM Pathans and the Pindaries for this cause. They attacked the British military camp at Kirki.
This started the third Anglo-Maratha war. In a series of battles, Marathas were defeated by the British. All Maratha chieftains accepted subsidiary Alliances. The descendent of Chatrapathi Sahu was allowed to rule the region of Satara. Baji Rao – II was pensioned off to Bithore with an annual pension of 8 Lakh rupees. With this, the British established political supremacy all over south India.
PART – F
VI. Match the following : (5 × 1 = 5)
1. (c) Mudraraksasa
2 (d) Father of medicine
3 (e) Uttarapatheshwara
4 (a) Shuddhi movement
5 (b) Iron man of India
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
(a) Quit India Movement
(b) Establishment of Brahmasamaj
(c) Arrival of Aryans to India
(d) Gupta era
(e) First battle of Panipets Answers
(d) Gupta era
(e) First battle of Panipets
(c) Arrival of Aryans to India
(b) Establishment of Brahmasamaj
(a) Quit India Movement (1942).