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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 5 with Answers
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Who wrote ‘Buddha Charita’?
Buddha Charita was written by Ashwagosha.
Which was the first metal used by the man in North India?
Copper was the first metal used by humans in North India.
What does the word Mohenjodaro mean?
Mohenjodaro means ‘Mound of the dead‘
Who was the greatest King of Kushanas?
Kanishka was the greatest King of Kushanas.
Who built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore?
Rajaraja Chola-1 built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore.
What is meant by Chauth?
The neighbouring areas of Shivaji’s kingdom which were not under the direct rule of Shivaji were to give % of their land revenue collection to him. This was called as Chauth.
Which was the birth place of Madhwacharya?
Pajaka near Udupi was the birth place of Madhwacharya.
Which is the Holy book of Sikhs?
Gurugranth Sahib or Adigrantha is the holy book of Sikhs.
From which word is Sufi derived?
The word ‘Sufi’ is derived from the word ‘Safo’ which means wool as the Sufi saints wone woollen clothes.
Name the Capital of the Dutch in India.
Pulicat was the capital of the Dutch in India.
PART – B
II. Answer any TEN of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Name any two Universities of ancient India.
The Universities of Nalanda, Taxila, Ujjain, Vikramashila, etc were the Universities of ancient India.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Neolithic’?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek words neo means new, ‘lithic’ means ‘stone’ which means New stone age. (8000 to 4000 B.C.E)
Name two important architectural centres of Pallavas.
Kanchi and Mahabalipuram are the important architectural centres of Pallavas.
Name two works of Pampa.
Adikavi Pampa wrote Adipurarana, Pampabharata or Vikramarjuna Vijaya.
Which was the first Kannada Drama and Who was its author?
Who was Mahmud Gawan and where did he build the Madarasa?
Mahmud Gawan was the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah-II. Gawan built the Madarasa at Bidar.
Name two historians of Adilshahi period.
Mulla Nusrati and Teristha were two famous historians of the Adil Shahi period.
Name any two works of Ramanujacharya.
Geetha Bhashya, Sree Bhashya, Sri Ranga Gadhya, Nitya Gadhya, etc, are the important works of Ramanujacharya.
Who founded Anubhava Mantapa and where?
Basaveshwara founded the Anubhava Mantapa at Kalyana (Bidar Dist.)
Name any two land revenue systems introduced by the British in India.
Zamindari system, Royatwari, and Mahalwari land revenue systems were introduced by the British in India.
When and where was Swami Vivekananda born?
Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863, at Calcutta (West Bengal).
Name any two extremist leaders
Lala Lajpat Roy, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Bal GangadharTilak were the extremist leaders.
PART – C
III. Answer any Six of the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
‘Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian History’. Justify.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different cLimatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we sec unity in diversity.Diversities :
1. Geographical diversity:
India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajastan) rainfall areas, etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.
2. Racial and linguistic diversities:
People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids, etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.
3. Social and religious diversity :
India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems.
Monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable sub-sects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.
4. Economic and Political diversities :
The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modem compared to the rural sectors.
In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united. Important among them are the following ones:
1. Geographical unity :
India has well-defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.
2. Administrative unity:
The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘ Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mouryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc., have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unity in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.
3. Uniformity of education and literature:
Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country.
Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rules. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.
4. Religious and social ceremonies:
India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds, and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.
5. Recent changes:
Indian constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc., have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs, and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.
Explain the Town planning of Indus civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.
Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually inside alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bathroom was constructed nearest to the street so that the wastewater drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level.
The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus, people had perfected the underground drainage system.
5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On all sides of the pool, there were steps.
Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and freshwater was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
7. Dockyard :
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people earned on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
Write a short note on Education and Science during Vedic period.
There were no regular educational institutions in the present sense of tire term. Education was imparted in Gurukulas, Pathashalas, Agraharas, Temples, and Ghatikas. Education, on the whole, was oral. Education was imparted by learned teachers to the students, who stayed with the teacher throughout their educational career. The aim of education was to develop knowledge, character, truthfulness and devotion. The teacher enjoyed great respect.
The Panchala parishad was a great academy of. learning. Higher education was imparted at the universities like Kanchi and Taxila. Education commenced with a ceremony called upanayanam. Both men and women received education.
Gargi, Maithreyi, Lopamudra, Shaswathi, and others were important women scholars. Vedas, puranas, philosophy, logic, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, medicine, etc, were the important subjects taught. Sanskrit was the medium of instruction.
Aryans achieved great progress in mathematics, geometry, medicine, and metallurgy. Calculations like the distance between the Sun and Moon, Earth and Moon and Sun and Earth were known to them. They also had knowledge of the occurance of eclipses, movement of Comets, etc. Cure of diseases was done by using herbs, roots, leaves, oils, salts, and mud. They followed the lunar calendar. We can see in the manufacture of the chariots, textiles, metal goods, musical instruments, ornaments, etc of these people, the progress made by them in technology.
What were the factors responsible for the rise of new religions?
6th century B.C.E. was a period of religious movement.in India. There were several factors which contributed to the social upheaval of that period. The irregularities (caste, injustice and rigid practices) in the existing social and religious systems were exposed and there was a growing awareness about the drawbacks in one’s own culture, and it led to the growth of new religions.
Factors responsible for the rise of new religions :
1. Complications in the Vedic religion :
In the beginning, vedic religion was very simple. The Aryans worshipped nature. Religion was not costly and there were sacrifices. Later, due to the influence of priests, a number of rigidities crept into religion. People got dissatisfied and they wanted changes which they found in the new religions.
2. Supremacy of the priestly class :
In the early vedic age, no priests were needed to perform Yajna, but gradually, things became complicated. It became more or less impossible for the family people to perform Yajnas by themselves without the help of priests. The Brahmanas enjoyed a number of special privileges and regarded themselves as superiors to all others.
3. Costly rituals in religion :
Earlier there were no rituals associated, with religion. The performance of simple rituals gradually became expensive and elaborate. Moreover, the performance of meaningless rituals was regarded as a waste by rationalists of that age. People were seeking a religion which would emphasize on simple ethics and righteous code of conduct.
4. The performance of sacrifices :
During the later vedic age, the practice of performing sacrifices got started. Animal sacrifices formed part of the rituals, which became very costly and meaningless. So, people became disenchanted with the existing religions. They wanted a change, which they found in the new religions.
5. Sanskrit Hymns (mantras) :
Vedic literature was in Sanskrit, which was mastered only by the priestly class. Common people were unable to understand Sanskrit. The popular belief was, that the recital of the hymns alone would ensure prosperity and health, but gradually people lost faith in chanting mantras (hymns) blindly and were looking out for a religion based on simple ethical principles.
6. The caste system :
Social system was rigid. There was discrimination among the different classes of people. Intercaste marriage and even interdining were prohibited. A person born in a particular caste was forced to follow the profession of his caste irrespective of his interest and attitude. Brahmanas enjoyed high status, but shudras had to suffer untold miseries. People became discontented due to the inequality in the society.
7. Birth of Great personalities :
When people were unhappy and discontented, there arose two great personalities, namely Mahaveera and Buddha. They preached simple principles of Life in the Language of the common people. The simple path of salvation preachead by the new religions attracted the common people towards the new faiths.
All the above factors led to the growth of discontentment among the common people. It led to the growth of rational outlook and the spirit of enquiry. It led to the establishment of new religions like Jainism and Buddhism.
Describe the achievements of Vishnuvardhana.
a. Vishnuvardhana 1108-1152 CE :
Bittideva or Vishnuvardhana was the greatest Hoysala ruler. He was the son of Ereyanga, and he ascended the throne in 1108 CE. He had taken part in many wars during his brother Ballala-I’s reign. He gained a lot of experience in administration, as the Governor ofNanjangud province.
He had ambitions of making the Kingdom independent. He was the first Hoysala King to revolt against the Chalukyas of Kalyana and tried to establish an independent Kingdom. But, he was defeated by Vikramaditya-VL By his ability and might, he became a powerful ruler.
Military achievements of Vishnuvardhana:
1. War with Cholas:
The aim of Vishnuvardhana was to defeat and expel the Cholas from Gangavadi. He sent an army to conquer Talakadu, Kolar and Mysore. He completely routed the Cholas from Gangavadi in the battle ofTalakadu in 1114 CE and took the title ‘Talakadugonda’. In commemoration of this victory, he built the Kirtinarayana temple at Talakadu and the Channakeshwara temple at Belur.
According to the Malavalli inscription. Vishnuvardhana himself chased the Cholas and occupied Kolar. Later, he drove back the Cholas uptoKanchi and earned the title Kanchigonda. From there, he raided Madurai and defeated Pandyas. After conquering Pandyas of Uchchangi in 1117 CE in the ‘Battle of Dumme’, he marched up to Rameshwara. He defeated the Nidugal Cholas and Cheras also.
2. Defeated the Kongalavas and Alupas: According to the Belur inscription, Vishnuvardhana defeated the Kongalava King and married his daughter Chandala Devi. While returning, he defeated Rattar of Halasagi and Alupas of South Canara.
Chamarajanagar inscription of 1117 CE, infers that Vishnuvardhana threatened the Todas, destroyed the Pallavas by killing their King Kala and made the Kongas run away.
3. War with the Chalukyas of Kalyana :
Vishnuvardhana wanted to free his Kingdom from the yoke of Chalukyan imperialism. But, he was defeated by Vikramaditya – VI in 1118 CE in the battle of Kannegala The Chalukyan sovereign continued till the death of Vikramaditya-VI.
4. Titles of Vishnuvardhana :
He had titles like Mahamandaleshwara, Chalukyamani, Mandalika Chudamani, Maleperolganda, Talakadugonda, Kanchigonda, Veeraganga, Nolambagonda, Kaliyaga Partha, Kirthinarayana, Vikramaganga, etc.,
5. Religious Policy :
Vishnuvardhana became a great follower of Ramanuja and embraced Sri Vaishnavism. During his rule, Jainism had also attained the highest position. His Queen Shantala and general Gangaraja were devout jains. Gangaraja was given enough grants to renovate all the basadies in Gangavadi.Vishnuvardhana practised religious tolerance towards Basadies and temples at Talakadu, Belur, Melukote, Tonnur, Gadag, Bankapura, etc.
6. Art and Architecture :
Vishnuvardhana was a great patron of art and architecture. During his regime, a unique style of temple building began. His period was called ‘the golden age of temple building’ and he laid the foundation for the Hoysala architecture.
Important temples built by him were the Channakeshwara and Kappechanniga temples at Belur, Kirtinarayana temple of Talakadu, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Tonnur, Chaluvanarayana temple at Melukote, Mahalakshmi temple of Doddagaddavalli and Gangadhareshwara temple at Shivaganga, etc.,
7. Literature :
Vishnuvardhana encouraged literature too. Jain scholar Rajadhitya wrote Kshetragariitha, Vyavaharaganitha, and Leelavathi in Kannada. Nayasena wrote Dharmamrutha, Ramanujacharya wrote Vedanthasara, Vedanthadeepika, and Vedanthasangraha.
Explain the reforms of Alla-ud-din- Khilji.
Administrative reforms :
1. Kingship (Sultan) :
Allauddin followed an independent policy regarding political matters. He was a strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central administration. He was the supreme authority in the state and combined civil and military talents in remarkable measures. He did not permit the interference of religious leaders in administrative matters.
He believed in the divine origin of Kingship and cherished the ideas that the King was the representative of God (Shadow of God). He once said “I issue orders as I conceive to be, for the good of the state and benefit of the people”.
He established a spy network, to get information regarding the activities of all the nobles of his court. He also tried to prevent out break of rebellions within the Empire and formation of any conspiracy against him. He deprived the Nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the Nobles, even in their houses.
3. Prohibition of drinking:
He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs in Delhi and drastic punishment was meted out to those who were guilty of violation. He knew that gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.
4. Military reforms:
The standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal order and prevent the invasion of the Mongols. He personally supervised the activities of the soldiers and paid them salaries regularly.
The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system. Ariz – i – Mumalik was the in charge for the appointment of soldiers.
5. Revenue reforms:
- Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land, for the asssessment of land revenue.
- He imposed heavy taxes on the Sardars, Jagirdars and Ulemas.
- He imposed Jazia, pilgrim, octroi and other taxes on non – muslims.
- He appointed a special officer called “Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants.
- In order to check bribery and corruption among revenue officials and to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials, their salaries were increased.
6. Market regulation:
The most remarkable of all these, was an attempt to control the market, by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all articles of common use were fixed. A separate department and officers were appointed to regulate the market prices of commodities on a daily basis.
7. Evaluation of Allauddin:
He is renowned not only for his conquests, but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, and capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.
Briefly write about the administration of Akbar.
a. Administrative system of Akbar:
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He established the heritage of Mughal administration and looked after the welfare of the people through a strong central government. He was a benevolent ruler having the welfare of the people, always in his mind and took personal interest in the affairs of the state and looked after every detail of the administration.
He provided strength, stability and imperial rule. The Mughal Emperor was called ‘Padishah or Badshah’. He was considered ‘Shadow of God’ and ruled in accordance with Islamic principles.
1. Central administration:
The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. The absolute authority of the King was never clearly defined, and there was practically no check on the Emperor’s powers. He was the supreme law maker and generally worked hard to safeguard the interests of the people. Emperor was assisted by a Council of Ministers. They were called the ‘Pillars of the State’.
The important ministers were, the Vakil (Prime minister), Diwan-i-Ali (Finance), Mir Bakshi (Military), Sadar-us-Sadar (in charge of charities) Khan-i-Saman (Home), Dewan (Revenue), and Qazi (Chief Justice). The government was divided into a number of departments, each headed by an officer under a minister.
2. Provincial Administration :
Akbar’s Empire consisted of 16 provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a Governor called ‘Subedar’, who was responsible for the collection of revenue and maintaining law and order within the province. Some of the important officers of the provinces were Dewan.
Bakshi, Sadar, Faujdar, Kotwal, Qazi, etc., Each Suba was divided into a number of Sarkars. Faujdar was the head of a Sarkar and each Sarkar was further divided into a number of Paraganas. Kotwals were in charge of city administration and village was the last unit of administration.
3. Military administration or mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari system’. He evolved this with the help of Mir Bakshi Shahbaz Khan in 1571 C.E. The term ‘Mansab’ means rank, dignity or office or position. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place on the basis of his horses, soldiers, his status and salary, etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required.
The army was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry, and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. There were 33 grades of Mansabdars (from controlling 10 to those controlling 10,000 soldiers which was later extended to 50,000). The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will.
The mansabdari system consisted of Zat and Sawar. Zat indicated the number of soldiers a Mansabdar was expected to maintain, while the word Sawar indicated the actual number of horses that he maintained. The salaries of Mansabdars were high. They were generally not paid in cash but were allotted Jagirs; yielding their respective salaries.
Mansabdars were directly under the control of the Emperor. Hence, most of them obeyed the Emperor implicitly. However, the system was not without defects. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers because the loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar who recruited them and paid their salaries and not to the Emperor.
4. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal:
Akbar followed the land revenue policy of Allauddin Khilji and Sher Shah. Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581, Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system and introduced what was known as ‘Zabti system or Ain- deeh-Sala’.The land was surveyed with Jaribs (Bamboo sticks joined with iron studs).
Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil. Land was classified as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar Bhoomi. He collected the aggregate rate of taxation for ten years. It was called ‘Ain-deeh-Sala’. It was 1/3 of the average of the previous ten year’s produce. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind.
The Emperor was conscious of the welfare of the peasantry. During the days of famine or fall in the yield, farmers were exempted from tax. Raja Todarmal’s revenue policy had provision to provide loans (Taccavi loans) to the cultivatiors. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments.
This land revenue system was called as “Todarmal’s Bandobust”. The state maintained the documents Patta and Qabuliyat, which recorded information regarding the land ownership and land revenue details.
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as listed below.
1. Political Unity and Uniform Administration:
The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept that “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.
2. Impact of English Education:
A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indians began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe. By the study of English literature and history, educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. English language was the language of comunication for the national leaders.
3. Discrimination against Indians:
The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs).
The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts on the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented. Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent among the educated class.
4. Role of Indian press and literature:
The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticised the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu, Patriot, etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings.
Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English and the vernacular languages. Scholars like R. G. Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller, Monier Williams, and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India.
The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self-confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.
5. The Economic Policy of the British:
The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.
6. Network of Communication:
The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule, etc., to establish. political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontent with the British policies.
The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and corner of the country and made propaganda.
Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. All the above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated: (5 + 5=10)
a. Mark any five of the following historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explonatory 4 note on each marked place in two sentences:
It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montegomary district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayarapi Sahani excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Marty monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc., are located here.
It is situated on the banks of river Jamuna in U.P. It was founded by Sikandar Lodhi. It became the capital of Akbar. Taj Mahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
5. Bijapura (Vijapura) :
It was the capital of Adil Shahis. Monuments like Golgumbaz, Ibrahim Rauza, Asar Mahal, Barakaman, etc are found here.
It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was the main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandal Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian Independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.
For visually Challenged Students only.
Answer the following question in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
b. Explain the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of’ equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Sir.M.Vishweshwaraiati is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’. Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore. His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
PART – E
V. Answer any TWO of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each : (2 × 10 = 20)
Why is Gupta Age called ‘The Golden Age’ in Indian History?
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all-round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age and Ahe “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed Vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular.
Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu.
They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The Vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya, and Rajasuya yagas-were performed with all splendour. Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period.
Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxi la, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well-known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology, and Science.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramaditya-II) patronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court.
Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam achari the, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra, and others.
The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.
Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu.
He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.
7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.
Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat-roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhuniara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
Describe the Cultural contributions of Vijayanagara Empire.
Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.
1. Central Administration:
Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death, etc.,
Kingship was hereditary. The King was assited by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions.
Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanaiyaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.
2. Provincial Administration:
There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were :
a. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
b. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories.’ The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.
3. Village administration:
The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.
4. Revenue System:
Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.
5. Military Administration:
Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.
b. Social conditions :
1. Caste System:
The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers, and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.
2. Position of Woman:
Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage, and polygamy existed in that society.
3. Social Harmony:
Musi is settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha, and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions.
Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi, and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.
c. Economic Condition:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, are canuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.
They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals, and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Nagalapura. A Dam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.
3. Trade and commerce:
Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamounds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron, etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade.
There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.
Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains, and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka – I refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.
The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres.
Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Education and Culture.
e. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.
The Vijayariagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are :
g. Sanskrit Works:
Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.,
h. Kannada Works:
Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleele. Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara, etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.
i. Telugu :
Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
Explain the causes and results of the First war of Indian Independence.
The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule. This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company.
The spark of patriotism was kindled in a millitary unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt:
1. Political causes:
The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule.
Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
2. Administrative causes:
The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus; and Muslims. Indians were not given higher posts in the administration and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
3. Economic causes:
Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India economically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods. Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot.
Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation’’.
4. Social causes:
Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices, etc., caused a lot of unrest among the orthodox people.
The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country and were clear signs of westernization. The British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
5. Religious causes:
The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions.
Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced intermarriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
6. Military causes:
Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani).
The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
7. Immediate causes:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt:
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far-reaching results. They are :
1. End of the Company rule:
The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858:
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
3. Reorganization of the Army:
The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
4. Unity among Indians:
The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
5. Source of Inspiration:
The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in the Indian National Movement.
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) :
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the cal I was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetlia, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement.
Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of national pride.
2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. NonCooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.
A violent mob at Ghowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
3. The Swaraj Party – 1923:
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.
4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the & political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.
Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement
6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was – decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any postivie response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws.
The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.
7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.
A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.
The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Govemements. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939:
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress.
Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned.
They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.
The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnali called for ‘Direct Action Day and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings. Aconstituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
14. Independence and Partition: (June 1947)
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.
Sardar Vailababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
- Swastik – Father of Indian Renaissance
- Shahajahan – Gandhi of Karnataka
- Shankaracharya – Jainism
- Rajararn Mohan Roy – Taj Mahal
- Hardekar Manjappa – Adwaita Philosophy
- Swastik – Jainism
- Shahajahan – Taj Mahal
- Shankaracharya – Adwaita Philosophy
- Rajararn Mohan Roy – Father of Indian Renaissance
- Hardekar Manjappa – Gandhi of Karnataka
Arrange the following in chronological order: (5 × 1 = 5)
a. Battle of Plassey.
b. Kalinga War.
c. Birth of Shivaji.
d. Congress session of Belgaum.
e. First Battle of Panipat.
1. (b) Kalinga war – (261 BCE)
2. (e) First Battle of Panipat – (1526 C.E)
3. (c) Birth of Shivaji – (1627 C.E.)
4. (a) Battle of Plassey-(1757 C.E.)
5. (d) Congress session of Belgaum – (1924 C.E.)