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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 7 Land and Water Resources
2nd PUC Geography Land and Water Resources One Mark Questions with Answers
What is meant by Land-Use?
Utilization of land for different purpose is known as “Land use pattern”.
Which state has the highest area under forests?
Madhya Pradesh has the highest area under forests.
What is fallow land?
The land which is not utilized for cultivation for last 3 to 5 years is considered as fallow land
What is Land Capability?
Land capability is the ability of a Piece of land to provide sustainable support for specific land use.
Mention the main source of surface water resource?
The surface water resources are rainfall, rivers, lakes, tanks and springs.
What is Irrigation?
It is an artificial supplying of water to the crops or plants or on art of supplying water to the crops.
Which state in India has the highest irrigated land?
Uttar Pradesh has the highest irrigated land in India.
What is Well irrigation?
Supplying of water from shallow ground to the surface is called Well irrigation.
What is Canal irrigation?
It is a type of irrigation in which water is drawn from rivers, tanks and reservoirs to supply water for Agriculture.
What is Tank irrigation?
Man made hollows which collects the rain water is and supplies the water in summer season is called tank irrigation.
What is Sprinkler irrigation?
The spraying of water to the crops through the pipe with nozzles under great pressure is called Sprinkler irrigation.
What is Drip irrigation?
Supplying of water through network of Pipes drop by drop nearest to the roots can be called ‘ as drip irrigation.
Define the multi purpose river valley project?
River valley project which provide multiple benefits are known as multipurpose river valley projects.
Which is the first multi purpose river valley project in India?
Damodar valley project on IS-11 Feb, 1948.
Across which river Bhakra Nangal dam is constructed?
What is the name of Bhakra reservoir?
Which is the longest dam in India?
What is meant by Water Conservation?
Protection & Preservation of water for future consumption purpose is known as water conservation.
What is Watershed?
The land area from which water flows towards a common water rcourse in natural basin is called Watershed.
What is the present total region of India in percentage?
22.8% under total geographical area of India.
What is land share of ‘Net area sown’ in India?
46.2% under total reporting land in India.
What is average annual rainfall of India?
Mention the quantity of Surface water & Ground water?
Surface water is 690 biHion cubic meters and ground water 433 BCM.
Name the state which has the largest number of tube well irrigation?
What is the total irrigated land in India.
Total irrigated land is 139.9 million hectares.
Which is state with highest tank irrigation in India.
Andhra Pradesh. It accounts 29.8%.
Which river is called The ‘Sorrow of Bengal’.
River Damodar is called Sorrow of Bengal.
Across which river Hirakud dam is constructed.
What is the meaning of Re-use of water.
The treated waste water can be used for watering gardens, washing vehicles and floors or the building etc.
What is infiltration of pits?
The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
What are the methods of rain water harvesting.
- In-Situ rain water harvesting.
- Ex-Situ rain water harvesting.
2nd PUC Geography Land and Water Resources Two Marks Questions with Answers
What are the main Physical features determine the Land-use Pattern?
Land use is determined by many factors like
- Relief features
- Density of Population.
Mention four reason of need for irrigation?
- Nature of rainfall
- Nature of soil
- Probability of drought
- Need of irrigation in Dry Areas.
Which are the major sources of irrigation?
Wells and tube wells, canals arid tank are the major sources of irrigation in the country.
What is the difference between Inundation canal and Perennial canal system?
- Inundation canals.taken out directly from rivers without making any barrage or dam.
- Derennial canals which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage.
What is Tank irrigation? Mention its inherent drawbacks?
Tanks are natural or man made hollows in which rain water is collected.
- Tanks get silted up soon.
- Most of the tanks are non-perennial & become dry during winter and summer seasons.
Mention the major objectives of multipurpose project?
The main aims of the project are :-
- Controlling of floods
- Providing irrigation
- Generating hydro-electricity
- Navigation and Pisciculture.
What is Conservation? Give examples?
Protection and Preservation of water is called Conservation.
- Reducing run-off losses
- Reduction of irrigation losses
- Re-use of water
- Prevention of wastage of water.
What is Watershed Management?
The rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production.
Mention the main objectives of rain water harvesting?
- It checks the runoff water and avoid flooding.
- It Refilling the ground water table and enables the well.
- It helps to overcome the scarcity of surface water to meet demand of water.
- It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
Mention the techniques of rain water harvesting?
- In urban areas the water that falls on the the roofs of buildings is harvested through recharge pit, recharge trench, tube well and recharge well.
- In rural areas rain water can be harvested through gully plug, Check dams, dug wells recharge, Contour bund, Percolation tank etc.
Mention need of Watershed Management?
In recent years, watersheds of India are degraded due to several reasons i.e., unscientific land use, overgrazing, deforestation, mining, shifting cultivation, soil erosion etc. This will result in the depletion of water resources. Thus watershed management is extremely neccessary.
Mention the benefits of rain water harvesting?
(a) It involves collection and storage of rain water at surface or in Sub-surface aquifer before it is lost as surface run off.
(b) It is not only increase water availability but also check the declining water table.
Mention the important types of land utilization in India.
- Net area sown
- Forests area
- Land not available for cultivation
- Cultivation wasteland
- Fallow Land.
Mention highest and lowest rainfall regions in India.
- West coast and north eastern India get very high rainfall.
- Rajasthan desert and Ladakh get very little rainfall.
Why is canal irrigation very predominant in North India.
North Indian plains are very fertile and very level lands, Rivers in this plains are perennials, slightly sloping towards south. It helps to move water easily in canals etc.
What are the drawbacks of well irrigation.
- They can dry up in the summer season.
- These are possible only in soft rock layers.
- To lift water, power is need &
- More capital is required so poor people cannot dug well easily.
Mention the reservior created by Upper Krishna Project & Tungabhadra dam.
- Upper Krishna created the reservior called ‘Basava sagar’.
- Tungabhadra created the reservior called ‘Pampa sagar’.
Distinguish between In-situ method & Ex-situ method of rain water harvesting.
- In-Situ MethodThe method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called
In-situ rain water harvesting.
- Ex-Situ Method :- It involves storing of running water and collected in checkdams, huge percolation tanks etc.
What is the meaning of rain water harvesting.
Controlling the run off of rain water and make it to percolate the to increase ground water table for future consumption purpose.
Who is called as ‘Water Man’ and Why?
Myagassessay award winner Sri. Rajendra Singh in Rajasthan is called ‘Water Man’ because he has productively used the rain water harvesting by check dams method.
2nd PUC Geography Land and Water Resources Five Marks Questions with Answers
Give an account of Land-Use pattern in India.
The important types of land use pattern in India are :
- Forest area
- Land not available for cultivation
- Cultivable wasteland
- Fallow land
- Net area sown.
1. Forest area :
- According to National Forest Policy 1952, reporting area of the forest must be 33.3.% of the total land.
- Madhya Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Andaman Nicobar. Islands are reporting more area under forests.
- It is due to heacy rainfall and relief features.
2. Land not available for cultivation :
- The land used for human settlements, transport routes, canals, quarries, the mountains, deserts, marshes etc, are coming under this category. It accounts 14.2% of the total land in India.
- Arunachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, states are having more area under this category.
3. Other Uncultivated lands including fallow land :
- This category includes permanent pasture as other grazing area, land under miscellanous tree crops, groves and cultivable waste. This category covers about 8.6% of the country’s total reporting land.
- The cultivable waste land is found more in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
4. Fallow lands :
- The land which is not used for cultivation for last 3 to 5 years is considered as fallow land.
- It accounts for about 8.13 % of Indias total land.
- The land under this category is reported more in the states of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand.
5. Net area sown :
- India has a net sown area of 46.2% of the total reporting land in India.
- Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmii, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram.
Discuss the importance of land capability.
- Land capability is the ability of a piece of land to provide sustainable support for a specific land use.
- Land capability is based on the understanding that every components of land has its own particular capacity to provide ecosystem services.
- Land capability assessment enables the reconciliation of production and protection.
- Land capability does not include social or economic components. It focuses entirely on requirements for sustainability of the ecosystem. There is the requirement to overlay this with the social and economic constraints. Thus we have land suitability assessment.
- Land capability is the inherent physical capacity of the land to sustain a range of land uses and management practices in long term without degradation to soil, air and water resources.
- If land is used beyond its capacity, degradation is the consequence, which leads to a decline in natural ecosystem values, agricultural productivity and infrastructure functionality.
Explain the Water resources of India.
- Water is a basic resource on the earth for all living organisms including mankind and for development and survival of plant community.
- Water is needed for daily use of organism.
- It is used for irrigation, generating hydro-electricity, navigation, industries, domestic use etc.
- Water Resources can be divided into
- Surface water resources and
- Ground water resources.
- The surface water resources are rainfall, rivers, lakes, tanks & springs.
1. Surface water resources :
- India has been blessed with extensive surface water resorces, because of the large number of rivers and sufficient rainfall.
- The most important source of surface water is rainfall.
- The average rainfall in India is 118 cm.
- The second important source of surface water is the rivers. The average run off in the river system of the country has been assessed at 1869 billion cubic meters [BCM].
- Approximately 60 – 65% of the total surface water resources are contributed by the North. Indian rivers. The remaining part is provided by other river systems.
2. Ground water resources : –
- The total collected ground water resources of the country have been estimated at 433 billion cubic metres of this about 40% is found in Ganga basin which has the highest potential in the country.
- Uttar Pradesh has the maximum potential followed by Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
- The average rainfall in India is 118 cm.
Explain the distribution of wells and tube wells irrigation in India.
- The largest concentration of wells occurs in the Gigantic plains streching from Punjab to Bihar.
- Wells are found scattered in eastern Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and TamilNadu.
- In Gujarat wells and tubewells irrigate 78.8% of the net irrigated area of the state.
- While Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh etc have more than 50% of their net respective irrigated area under well irrigation.
- Wells and tubewells are presently most popular source of irrigation in India accounting for 60.7% of the total irrigated area.
- Digging of tube well started in 1930 in the Gangas plains under minor irrigation programmes during Five-year plans.
- Today there are more than 45 Lakh tube wells in government and private ownership Pump sets are especially useful for individual farmers.
- Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of tubewells in the country.
- The percentage of area under tubewell irrigation in India is 35.6 which is highest in Uttar Pradesh (77.5). followed by Punjab (67.3), Bihar (49.1), West Bengal (36.1), Kerala (28.5), Gujarath (26.5) etc.
Explain the Canal irrigation in India.
India has one of the largest canal systems of the world. Canals are the second largest source of irrigation in the country.
Canals are of two types :
1. Inundation canals : taken out directly from rivers, without making any barrage or dam.
2. Perennial canals : which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage or weir to regulate the flow of water.
- Canal irrigation is widely practiced in the Sutlej Gangas plains and the deltas of the peninsular rivers.
- Nearly 79% of India’s canals irrigated area lies in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh,Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh etc.
- Uttar Pradesh ranks first in India where canal irrigation is most extensive.
Canal irrigation suffers from a number of draw-backs such as water logging, increase in water table, alkalinity of soils due to capillary action etc.
Discuss the present situation of Tank irrigation in India.
Tanks are natural or man hollows or depressions into which rain water is collected.
- Usually they are built by individuals or groups of farmers by raising bunds across seasonal stream.
- Tank irrigation is widely practiced in Andhra Pradesh (29.8%), TamilNadu and Karnataka states.
- Tank irrigation is an ancient method of irrigation in the country. But the area under tank irrigation has decreased in recent years due to some draw backs.
- The area under tank irrigation decreased from 4.6 million hectare in 1960 – 61 to 1.56 . million hectre in 2007 – 08.
- It accounts for only 3.2% of the total irrigated area in India. Tank irrigation is suffering from certain inherent drawbacks
- Tanks get silted up soon.
- Most of the tanks are non-perennial’and become dry during winter and summer seasons.
- They occupy large fertile areas which could have been used for cultivation.
Explain the development and distribution of other types of irrigation.
Sprinkler Irrigation :
- The spraying of water to the crops through the pipe with nozzles under great pressure is called‘Sprinkler irrigation’.
- In this method water consuming is less but provides more moisture to the plants.
- The adoption of this system is more expensive.
- It is more popular in Punjab, Harayana, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat.
Drip Irrigation :
- A newly developed irrigation system, orginally developed in Israel is becoming popular in areas with water scarcity. This source of irrigation was introduced in India in the seven-ties.
- In 2005, the area under drip irrigation was 6.3 Lakh hectares.
- In this system a small amount of water passes through pipe falls drop by drop just at the position of roots or a limited area around the plant.
- It saves more water and it is possible to irrigate more arek .
- Drip irrigation is practiced in Rajastjan, Maharashtra, Karnataka and TamilNadu.
- Drip irrigation is mainly used for coconut, grapes, citrus fruits, vegetables and plantation crops.
What is Multipurpose River Valley? Explain its importance in India.
River valley projects which provides multiple benefits are known as “Multipurpose River Valley Projects”. The importance of these projects’ includes –
- Providing irrigation
- Generation of Hydro-electricity
- Flood Control
- Soil Conservation
- Drinking water
- Preservation of Wildlife
- Fodder for animals and employment for in habit.
- Employment for inhabitants.
In India based on the pattern of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the USA, the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) was started in 1948, to harness the Damodar River. Subsequently many similar projects have been taken up in the country.
Discuss the important features and aims of Damodar Valley Project.
The main aims of the project are flood control, Promotion of irrigation, Generating Hydro-Electricity, Navigation, Afforestation, Prevents Soil erosion, Inland fishing and recreation facilities.
Its features are as follows :
Damodar and its tributaries –
It comprises four Dams, three Hydel Power stations one barrage and three thermal power stations. ‘
1. Tilaiya Dam :
- This dam has been constructed on Barakar river, a tributary of Damodar.
- Its gross storage capacity is 395 million cubic metres.
- Two power stations of 200KW each have been set up here. The dam provides irrigation facilities to 40,000 hectares.
2. Konar Dam :
- It has been constructed on Konar river.
- Its gross storage capacity is 337 million cubic metres. Its provides irrigation facilities to 1.4 Lakh hectares.
3. Maothon Dam :
- It has been constructed on Barakar river.
- Its gross storage capacity is 1,357 million cubic metres. There are three hydro¬electric power units with an installed capacity of 60MW.
4. Panchet Hill Dam :
- It has been constructed on river Damodar.
- Its gross storage capacity is 1,497 million cubic metres.
5. Durgapur Barrage : The Network is of 2,495 km long canals. They irrigate 4.75 Lakh hectares in West Bengal.
Explain the main objectives and importance of Bhakra Nangal Project.
- The Bhakra – Nangal Project is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. It has been named after the two dams constructed at Bhakra and Nangal on the Sutlej river in Himachal Pradesh.
- Flood control, irrigation facilities, hydel power generation, promote afforestation.
- The main objectives of the project are :
- Flood control
- Irrigation facilities
- Hydel power generation
- Promote afforestation
- Soil Conservation etc.
- The Bhakra dam is constructed across the Sutlej river at Bhakra in Himachal Pradesh.
- It is 518 meters long & 226 metres high.
- The Reservoir created by the Bhakra-dam covers an area of 173.8 knv and has a gross storage capacity of 9,867 million cubic metres. This reservoir is called the ‘Govindsagar’.
- The canals have a total length cf about 1104 kms, & their length of their distributaries is 3,360 kms.
- They provide irrigation to 27.4 Lakh hectares of land-in Haryana, Rajasthan and some parts of Punjab.
- The Nangal dam is constructed across the Sutlej river at Nangal, 13kms below the Bhakra dam.
- It is 305 metres long and 29 metres high.
- The Nangal canal irrigates 26.4 lakh hectares of land in Haryana and 50.2 lakh hectres of land in Punjab.
- This project plays an important role on Agriculture in the North Western part of India by providing irrigation where rainfall is scanty.
Explain the chief aims and importance of Hirakud Project.
- It is an ambitious multipurpose river valley project in Odisha, planned for harnessing the waters of Mahanadi river.
- There dams are constructed across the Mahanadi at different places.
- The 4801 mt long dam has been built across the Mahanadi at Hirakud, 9.7 kms up stream of Sambalpur. –
- The height of the dam above the river bed is 61 metres.
- It is the longest dam in India and forms 650 km2 reservoir.
- It has a gross storage capacity of 810 crore cubic meters of water.
- They irrigate 2.54 lakh hectares.
- The project has two hydro-electric power stations with an installed capacity of 270 m.
- The second and third dams are constructed at Tikarapara and Naraj respectively.
- The Mahanadhi Delta Irrigation scheme can provide irrigation for 6.84 lakh hectares.
- The third one comprises of 1353 km and 386.2 km long canals with irrigation potential of 5.4 lakh hectares.
- Chief Aims of this projects are :
- Flood control
- Irrigation development
- Generation of hydro-electric power
- Provides navigation, recreational facilities and afforestation.
Explain the main features and importance of Upper Krishna Project.
This is the biggest Multipurpose project in North Karnataka across the river Krishna.
- It comprises two dams namely Alamatti and Narayanapura.
- The Alamatti dam is constructed near Alamatti village in Basavana Bagewadi taluk and the Narayanapura dam is located near Siddapur village in Muddebihal taluk of Bijapur district.
- The Alamatti dam is 1,578 mt long & its height is 47.8 mt above the lowest foundation level with a gross capacity of 5,285 mcum.
- The Narayanapura dam is 10,637 mt long and 29.7 mt high above the lowest foundation level with a gross capacity of 10,66 mcum.
- It is going to irrigate about 6.22 lakh hectares of land in Bagalkot district, Bijapur district, Yadgir district, Gulbarga district, Raichur district.
- The project also include 6 units of power generation at Alamatti having a total capacity of 268 mw.
Give an account of Water Conservation and Management.
1. Water Conservation refers to the action taken to use water effeciently. It involves the controlling, protecting, managing & planning for the wise use of our scarce water resources.
2. The following stratergies can be adopted for conservation of water.
- Reducing run-off losses : It can be achieved by using contour cultivation, terrace . fanning, mulching, water storage structures like farm ponds.
- Reduction of irrigation losses : It can be reduced by drip and sprinkler irrigation, use of lined or covered canals to reduce seepage.
- Re-use of water : The treated waste water can be used for watering .gardens, washing vehicles and floors of the building. It helps in saving fresh water.
- Prevention of wastage of water : Preventing by closing taps when not in use, repairing any leakage from pipes and using small capacity flush in toilets.
Explain the Watershed Management.
The Land area from which water flows towards a common water course in natural basin is called ‘Watershed’.
- Importance of Watershed : Watersheds are the sources of river which supply water – for irrigation, generating hydro-electricity, domestic use.
- Meaning of Watershed Management : “The Rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production.
- Need of Watershed Management : In recent years, Watersheds of India are degraded due to several reasons i.e., unscientific land use, overgrazing, deforestation, mining, shifting cultivation, soil erosion etc.
Methods of Watersheds Management :
- Water harvesting :- Proper storage of water is done with provision for use in dry season in low rainfall areas.
- Afforestation & Agroforestry :- They help to prevent soil erosion & retention of moisture.
- Scientific Mining & Quarrying :- These can minimize the destructive effects in watershed areas.
- Mechanical Measures :- These Measures including terracing, binding, bench terracing, contour cropping strip cropping etc.
- Public Participation :- The involvement of local people including farmers & tribals is essential to the success of watershed programme.
Discuss about Rainwater Harvesting?
- Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.
- It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.
Objectives: The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.
- It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
- It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
- It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
- If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
- It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
- It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.
Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example –
- Infilteration pits : The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
- Contour bunds and trenches : The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
- Roof top water harvesting : The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.
2. Ex-situ method : This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.
What is the meaning of Irrigation and Explain the need of Irrigation in India.
It is an artificial means of watering the crops or an art of supplying water to the crops.
Need for Irrigation :
Distribution of water resources are highly varied. While some areas are dry some are wet and humid in such circumstances, we have to arrange water for crops through artificial means for fulfilling their needs. Thus, irrigation becomes necessary on account of following reasons.
- Nature of rainfall Due to irregular, uncertain and limited rainfall scarcity of water is caused so, need for irrigation arises. ,
- Nature of soil There is greater need of irrigation in sandy soil.
- Probability of DroughtAt places of droughts irrigation is essential.
- Need of Irrigation in dry areas In dry areas, where rainfall is less than 40 to 50 cm per year, the need arises for irrigation.
- More need of w;ater for special crops like rice, jute, sugar cane etc.
- More need of water to improve new and high yielding varieties of seeds for higher productivity.
- Water is essential to develop pastures for cattle and dairy development.
- Population of India is Multiplying fast, and it needs additional food production. This can be possible only through irrigation.