## Karnataka 1st PUC Statistics Question Bank Chapter 1 Introduction – Meaning and Scope

### 1st PUC Statistics Introduction – Meaning and Scope Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by the word ‘ statistics’
Solution:
Numerical statements are called statistics.

Question 2.
How the word statistics derived? what is the origin of statistics?
Solution:
The word statistics is derived from the Latin word ‘status’ or the German word ‘statistik’ or the French word ‘statistique’ or the Italian word ‘statista’, each of which mean the political state Affairs.

Question 3.
Give an example for statistics.
Solution:
The figures regarding the army, population of a locality, taxation pattern, expenditures of different departments, volume of trades, the scoring figures of a cricket team etc., were called statistics Question 4.
What are the two senses in which the term ‘Statistics’ is generally used ?
Solution:
The word statistics used in two senses as-

1. In plural form statistics as ‘Statistical data’ or Numerical statement of facts
2. In singularform ‘Statistical methods’.

Question 5.
Distinguish between ‘Statistics as numerical data’ and ‘ Statistics as statistical methods ’ with examples.
Solution:
Student’s strength recorded for the past five years of a college is a ‘statistical data’ and collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data is a ‘statistical methods’.

Question 6.
State Prof. Horace Secrist’s definition of statistics.
Solution:
In plural sense an exhaustive definition was given by prof. Horace secrists as “Statistics may be defined as the aggregate of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner, for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.

Question 7.
State ‘A.L.Bowley’s and ‘Croxton and Cowden’s’ definition of Statistics.
Solution:
A.L. Bowley defined Statistics as ‘The Science of counting’. Afterwards, he redefined it as ‘The science of averages ’, Croxton and Cowden defines “ Statistics is the science of collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data .” Question 8.
Mention the characteristics of Statistics.
Solution:
The characteristics are-

• Statistics are aggregate of facts. …
• Statistics are affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes.
• Statistics are numerically expressed.
• Statistics are enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy.
• Statistics are collected in a systematic manner.
• Statistics are collected for a pre-determined purpose.
• Statistics should be placed in relation to each other.

Question 9.
Mention the two branches of Applied Statistics.
Solution:
The two branches of statistics are- Statistical Methods and Applied Statistics.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on the main divisions of Statistics.
Solution:
Statistics have two branches, namely Statistical Methods and Applied Statistics.
Statistical methods are also called mathematical statistics or theory of statistics. It deals with the procedure of statistical analysis of numerical data. It is a tool for decision making.

Applied Statistics is the application of statistical methods to concrete situations like Agriculture, Industry, Population, Medicines etc. Question 11.
What is Biometry ?
Solution:
Biometry which means Bio-Statistics- which deals problems in Biology.

Question 12.
Define Econometrics.
Solution:
Econometrics is a tool used to prove or disprove the theories of Economics.

Question 13.
What are the functions of Statistics?
Solution:
The followings are the important functions of Statistics :

• It presents the facts in a definite form
• It simplifies and condenses the size of the data
• It facilitates comparison
• It enriches our knowledge and widens our experience
• It helps in formulating policies
• It helps in Business forecasting.
• It helps in framing and testing of hypothesis

Question 14.
What are the limitations of Statistics?
Solution:
Some limitations of Statistics are as follows :

• It does not deal with individuals
• It does not deal with qualitative data
• Statistical laws are true only on an average
•  Only experts can make the best possible use of statistics.
• For statistical analysis, uniformity and homogeneity of data is essential Question 15.
What is the role of statistics in Business and Economics?
Solution:
Statistics in Business: Statistical methods are used by businessmen in making decisions, estimation and comparison of sales, production, export, import, etc.  Also, in the business activities such as production, finance, sales, accounting, purchase, quality control, marketing, etc., statistical methods are extensively used. Statistical methods are used in forecasting the future trends and tendencies.

Statistics in Economics: Statistical methods are useful in understanding economic problems, formulating economic policies. Five-year plans, Savings, Taxation, Exports and Imports etc, and their progress are evaluated by statistical methods. Econometrics is a branch of statistics, which deals with the application of statistical methods in the field of Economics.

Question 16.
What are the causes of distrust of Statistics?
Solution:
The causes of distrust of statistics arises due to the direct or indirect influence of certain causes. Theses causes are :

• Figures can be easily believed.
• Ignoring the limitations of statistics.
• Misuse of the figures.
• Lack of subject knowledge.

Question 17.
What are the remedies to remove the distrust of Statistics?
Solution:
Following are the remedies to remove distrust statistics:

• Need of caution.
• Statistical limitations should be taken into consideration.
• Self-restraint. That is self-control in statistical fallacies.
• Statistics must be used by experts.
• Analytical study of data before its use. Question 18.
Explain with examples of the following:

(a) Population and Sample.
Solution:
The totality of units under consideration is called population or universe. The representative units of a population is called sample.
Ex:

1. Number of Paddy saplings in a plot are population, where the number of paddy saplings hold in a hand by a cooli for grafting is a sample.
2. The number of students of I year commerce students in a college is population, where as the number of students in I year SEBA -A section is a sample.

(b) Qualitative and Quantitative characteristics.
Solution:
The characteristics which are not numerically measurable are called Qualitative Characteristics.
Ex: Beauty of a painting, skin colour / famous/intelligence of a person.

– Numerically measurable characteristics are called Quantitative Characteristic.
Ex: Number ripe mangoes, No. of phone calls, Height of a person, weight of apples, wages of Employees.

(c) Qualitative and Quantitative data.
Solution:
The data which are not numerically expressed are called Qualitative data.
Ex: In a class out of 80 students in a class, 22 wear spectacles of which 3 are blue eyed girls and 4 dark-eyed boys.

– Numerically expressed data are called Quantitative Data.
Ex: In a class of 80 students,- 28 students were above 175 cms and 15 students were below 165 students.

(d) Variable and Attribute.
Solution:
A qualitative characteristics which varies from unit to unit is an attribute.
Ex: Skin colour, Taste, Beauty, Intelligence, Famous, Ability etc A quantitative characteristics which varies from unit to unit is a variable.
Ex : No. of children, No. of printing mistakes in a book, Height, Weight, Thickness, Length etc.

(e) Discrete and Continuous variables.
Solution:
A variable which assumes only specified values within a given range is a discrete variable.
Ex : Number of benches/windows in a classroom, Number of road accidents in a day etc.
– A variable which assumes all the possible values within a given range is a continuous variable.
Ex: Income of persons, Weight of students etc.

(f) Nominal and Ordinal scales.
Solution:
Number assigned for every unit for identification of different categories is called a nominal scale.

Ex:

1. Roll numbers assigned to students of a class.
2. Teaching staff of a college are indicated by ‘ 1 ’ as married and ‘0’ as unmarried. -Numbers assigned to observations that can be arranged in ascending or descending order is called an ordinal scale.

Ex:

1. Ranks given to students according to their performance.
2. The qualities of cashew are assigned 1, 2 and 3 according to their quality in a market yard. 