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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2017 (North)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
Who is the father of Sociology?
Auguste Comte

Question 2.
What is Co-operation?
Working together for a common reward.

Question 3.
Give one example of folkways.
Ways of Eating, Greeting, dressing etc.

Question 4.
Mention any one elements of interaction.

Question 5.
State anyone importance of competition.
Improves efficiency.

Question 6.
Give any one example to the Material culture.
Motor vehicles.

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Question 7.
What is Marriage?
According to Robert H. Lowie “Marriage is a permanent bond between permissible mates”.

Question 8.
Who is the author of the book “Origin of Species”?
Charls Darwin.

Question 9.
What is primary data?
Primary data are those which are collected directly by the researcher through an interview, questionnaire and observation.

Question 10.
What is Water Pollution?
Any activity of human beings resulting in variation in thr water quality is know as water | pollution

II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in Two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 11.
What are two essential elements of community?

  1. Locality or a Geographical area
  2. Community Sentiment.

Question 12.
Mention any two characteristics of institution.
Institutions are:

  • Universal
  • Institutions are standardized Norms

Question 13.
Give any two objectives of social control.

  1. Social control brings about Social conformity.
  2. Social control brings about Social solidarity.

Question 14.
Mention two types of Co-operation. :
Direct co-operation and indirect co-operation.

Question 15.
What is “Cultural lag”?
When non material culture cannot adjust itself to the material culture it falls behind the material culture. As a result there exists a gap between the two. According to Ogburn this gap between the material culture and non – material culturre is called “cultural lag”.

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Question 16.
List any two functions of marriage.

  1. Procreation and
  2. establishment of family.

Question 17.
Give two examples for Natural change.
Changes influenced by nature such as drought and flood.

Question 18.
Define Social progress.
The progress means to a forward movement or an intended change towards a desirable direction.

Question 19.
State two types of observation.
The two types of observation are :
Structured observation and Unstructured observation

Question 20.
Mention any two Resistance to social change.
Lack of New Inventions and fear.

Question 21.
Mention branches of Ecology?
Animal Ecology and Social Ecology.

Question 22.
Mention any two factors that is favorable of assimilation.

  1. Toleration
  2. Intimate social relationships

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III. Answer any Four question in Fifteen sentences each: ( 4 × 5= 20 )

Question 23.
Explain any five nature and characteristics of Sociology.
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.

Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.

Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.

On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.

But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a I general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  1. Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  2. Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modem science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

Question 24.
Explain any five characteristics of Society.
Characteristics of society.

(a) Society- The Group of Groups: People collect together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society. Each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M.Johnson – Has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not’just like a crowd. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

(b) Society is a web of Social Relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range. For example Teacher – student, Parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters into several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and Page- Point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.

(c) Similarity or likeness: The principal of ‘ likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people who have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live together. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, Sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develop. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, businessmen, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “Primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

(e) Co-operation and Division of Labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labour. Due to the feeling of co-operation people share their joys and Sorrows. The division of labour depends on people’s interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance. Thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

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Question 25.
Explain George Simmel’s typology of conflict.
George Simmel has distinguished four types of conflict
(a) war
(b) feud or rational strife
(c) litigation
(d) conflict of impersonal ideas.

(a) War: According to Simmel war represents a deep seated antagonistic impulse in men. But to bring out this impulse into action some define objectives is needed. The objective may be the desire to gain material interests.

(b) Feud and factional strife: This is an intra-group conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.

(c) Litigation: Litigation is a judicial form of conflict. It is a judicial struggle by an individual or group to protect right to possessions. This kind of conflict is more objectives in nature.

(d) Conflict of impersonal ideas: This is a conflict carried on by the individuals not for themselves but for an ideal. In such a conflict each party attempts to justify truthfulness of its own ideas. For ex, the communists and Capitalists carry on conflicts to prove that their own system can bring in a better world order.

Question 26.
Competition has become an separable aspect of human life. Explain.
Importance or function of competition:
Competition plays an important role in social life. Competition performs a number of useful functions in society. Some of them may be noted here

1. Source of motivation: Competition is a source of motivation for the individuals. It makes the individual to show his ability and express the talent. It increases individual efficiency. Assigns statuses to the individuals: Competition assigns individuals their respective place in the social system. Social status and competition are always associated Some people complete with others to retains their status, other complete to enhance their status.

2. Provides for new experiences: As Ogburn and Nimkoff has pointed the individuals better opportunities to satisfy their desires for new experiences and recognition. As far as the group is concerned Competition means experimental charge.

3. Competition contributes to Socio-economic progress: Fair Competition is conducive to economic as well as social progress. It even contributes to general welfare because it spurns individuals and groups on to exert their best efforts. When the Competition is directed to promote the general interests of community as a whole, it can bring about miraculous results.

4. Provides for social mobility: As far as the individual is concerned. Competition implies mobility and freedom. The spirit of Competition helps the individual to improve his social status.

Question 27.
What is Soil Pollution? State impact of Soil Pollution
The upper layer of the earth is consisted of ‘Soil’. This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of tin biological sysrem.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution: Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

Effects of soil Pollution : Soil is one of the main sources of the nature of pollution of the soil will leads to so many negative effects.

  • Reduction in the crop yield.
  • The food obtained by the contaminated soil will spoil the human health.
  • Soil contamination leads to the water scarcity in some regions causing the death of animal multitude.
  • Contamination ofsoil will leads to the water pollution.

Question 28.
Discuss the family as an agent of Socialization.
The family: Family is the first agency of socialization of the child. Physical nearness, close relationship, passiveness of the child, authority of parents over the child etc., all have greater influence in moulding the personality of the child.

In family, parental influence, particularly of the mother, is very great. From the parents the child learns language. It is taught number of civic virtues. The child gets his first lessons in cooperation, tolerance self-sacrifice, love and affection, etc., in the family.

The earliest and the closet ties of an individual are with his parents and siblings. There have authority over the child. Possessiveness of the child and its emotional attachment with parents and siblings make socialization an easy and smooth process. Cultural heritage is passed from one generation to the other in family.

IV. Answer the Four questions in 15 sentences each: ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 29.
Briefly explain the secondary functions of family.
The secondary function are:

1. Economic function: Family an important unit of both production and consumption, but today, modem families mainly earn incomes. Thus, their principles function is that of the consumption of goods and services which they purchase. Because of income the provision of economic support for family members is a major function of the modem family.

2. Educational function: In the modem world child learns basic skills at formal school and colleges. At the same time child learn its mother tongue and traditions skills and talents at home. Traditions families were associated with vocational education because families were associated with a particular task.

3. Religious function: Family is the centre for the Religious training of the children who learn various religious virtues from their parents. Rituals, ceremonies and worship are carried out on which made the outlook of children.

4. Recreational function: Family provides Recreation to its members. It may be day today interaction among the members in several occasion such as feasting, gathering, marriage, festival enhances happiness.

Thus family is a school of civil virtues. The virtues of love, co-operation, toleration, sacrifice, obedience and discipline are learnt in the family. This is why family has been called as the cradle of civil virtues.

5. Inter-institutional linkage: Each baby is a potential participant in the group life of the society. Family relationship with other institutions like religious, political, economic, recreational and other kinds of organizations typically gives individuals an opportunity to participate in these activities. The family, then, not only prepares the individual to play social roles and occupy a status in the community, but also provides the opportunities for such activity.

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Question 30.
Explain the basic elements of religion.
James G Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.

Elements of Religion:

Supernatural and the Sacred: At the centre of almost every religion lies the idea of the supernatural. It is something beyond physical understanding. It is omnipotent infinite or extraordinary. According to E. B. Tylor Belief in supernatural begins is called religion.

Belief in the supernatural begins might also include belief in other kinds of begins like magic forces, angles or soul of dead ancestors, believers might arrange the supernatural begins in a hierarchy according to their power or they may differentiate the supernatural begins in terms of their functions. It should be interesting to note that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three Hindu Gods, are said to perform the function of creation of the cosmic order, its maintenance and destruction, respectively.

Beliefs and practice: Religious belief is a system of knowledge about the divine and its relationship with the human. It is simply not enough to believe in the existence of a supernatural force. The knowledge of its existence must be explained to people and to generations to come. Belief serves this purpose of revealing the existence of the supernatural or divine or the sacred. Belief explains the nature of the divine.

Provides Moral Prescriptions: Religion is the source of moral values, and religion without moral prescription is virtually not possible. Religion can distinguish between the right and the wrong, more powerful than other social institutions.

Methods of Salvation: Methods of salvation constitutes another elements of Religion. If may be in various forms like attaining moksha, Nirvana, Salvation, and the Christian has a redeemer in Christ, the son of God, who gave his life for man’s Sin. In short religion is the institutionalized set of beliefs men hold about super natural forces belief are formalized and regularized.

Question 31.
Explain the role of Natural factor which brings social change.
Natural factor or Geographical factors:

(i) Change brought by natural conditions or change brought by environment is called as physical factor or geographical factors. Man and society exist within the environment. Whenever change occur in environment it brings change in society too.

(ii) According to Ian Robertson, relationship between social and environmental factors bring change in society. We find less change in polar region. More on banks of river. When society grows complex. It brings more loss on geographical factors. Civilization brings convenience to man but develops controversies with environment.

(iii) Recently because of technological and scientific developments we find less influence of physical factor. Growth of culture and civilization minimize the influence of geography.

Question 32.
Distinguish between progress and evolution.
The difference between progress and evolution

Progress Evolution
Progress is a change towards desired goal. Evolution is a definite term explained definite features in change
Progress is subjective and is value based. Evolution is slow and step by step process
Progressive is a mobility from inferior to superior which express ideal. Evolution is in one direction it is always move from homogeneity to heterogeneity
Progressive is change towards definite goal, if progress involves human satisfaction. Evolution is a continuous process. It is intrinsic and it continues only within the structure.

Question 33.
Explain types of environment.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments

Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.

Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.

Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.

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Question 34.
Explain the characteristics of accommodation.
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff: “Accommodation is a term used by the sociologists to describe the adj ustment of hostile individuals or groups”. Maclver says that “the term Accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.

Characteristics of Accommodation:

1. Accommodation is the natural result of Conflict: Since conflicts cannot take place continuously they involved in conflict do not relish the sense of conflict they sit down for it settlement. Such settlements temporary or permanent may be called “Accommodation” in the absence of conflict the question of arriving at accommodation does not arise.

2. Accommodation may be a conscious or an unconscious: Man’s adjustment with the social environment is mostly unconscious. From birth to death man to be behave in conformity with the normative order. The new bom individual learns to accommodate himself with the social order which is dedicated by various norms such as customs, morals, traditions etc. Thus, unconsciously the new bom individual accommodation himself with his family, caste or race, neighborhood. Life is full of such unconscious accommodative activities.

3. Accommodation is Universal: Accommodation as a ‘condition’ and as a ‘process’ is universal. Human society is composed to antagonistic elements and hence conflicts are inevitable. Since no society becomes necessary. Thus accommodation is found in all societies and in all fields of social fife.

4.  Accommodation is continuous: The process of accommodation is not confined to any particular stage in the life of an individual It is not limited to any fixed social situation also. On the contrary, throughout the life one has to accommodate oneself with various situations, further, as and when conflicts take place sooner or later accommodation would follow not only the individuals but also the groups within the society are obliged to accommodate among themselves.

5. The effects of accommodation may vary with the circumstances: It may act to reduce the conflict between persons or groups as an initial step towards assimilation. It may serve to postpone outright conflict for a specific period of time, as in a treaty between nations or labor.

Management agreement. It may permit groups marked by sharp social-psychological distance to get along together. It may prove to be beneficial for the parties involved in it. Sometimes it may help the superior or more powerful party to party to impose it on the weaker party.

V. Answer any Two of the following in 25 sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 35.
Explain the factors that, contributed to the emergence of Sociology.
The major factors which favoured the emergence of Sociology are as follows:
(a) Impact of the Twin Revolution: Sociology emerged in the context of the sweeping changes that the twin revolutions, namely (a) The French Revolution and (b) The Industrial Revolution, brought to Europe.

1.  Influence of the French revolutions (1789): The French Revolution was the most immediate factor in the rise of sociological thinking, the new political climate emphasised liberty, equality, fraternity, justice, individual right and thinking. The writers and thinkers of the day were particularly disturbed by the chaos and disorder which the Revolution brought in. Some of the radical thinkers sought the need to find out new bases of social order or system which had been disturbed by the political revolutions. This interest in the issue of social order evinced by the social thinkers ultimately supported the cause of the emergence of sociology.

2. The impact of the industrial revolution: The Industrial Revolution that began in England in the 18th century swept through many western societies. The social effects of Industrial Revolution were many. The revolution led to factory system of production which in turn gave place to mechanisation and industrialisation. The simple rural life and domastic industries were replaced by complex urban life and mass production of goods. Industrialisation changed the direction of civilisation. Peasants left the rural areas and flocked towns, Cities started growing at a very fast rate. Cities also became the centres of crime, Political orders and religious beliefs were also adversely affected.

(b) Inspiration from the growth of natural and other social sciences: The age of Enlightenment and the era of Revolutions increased the importance of Science in Society. Science subjects came to introduced as major subjects of learning in several colleges and universities in the west. Further technological products from coal to steam engines, from sward tq hand gun and canons, from pen and paper to printing press, and the like started entering almost all sectors of life. Science thus, started acquiring enormous prestige in society.

The success attained by the natural scientists inspired and even tempted good number of social thinkers to imitate their example. Many thinkers wanted to model Sociology after the successful physical and biological sciences. Comte, Durkheim, Spencer, Weber, Simmel and others successfully demonstrated that the methods of physical sciences could be used effectively to study the social world.

(c) Inspiration provided by the newly discovered societies and cultures: The colonial powers of Europe such as England, France, Portugal, Spain, Holland, Germany, and other nations came in contact with different societies and cultures in the colonies. Their exposures to such diversities in cultures provided an intellectual challenge for the social scientists of the day. Information about the widely contrasting social practices of these distant peoples raised fresh questions about society! The new science of society called “Sociology” emerged as an independent science in an attempt to find convincing answer to these and to many such questions.

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Question 36.
What is mores? Explain its characteristics.
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong they are converted into mores”.

Characteristics of Mores are:

More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them. They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.

Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.

Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Sati” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.

Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.

Question 37.
Define culture and discuss its chief characteristics.
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”

Characteristics of culture are:

Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are acquired in group life are what is called culture.

Culture is Social: Culture is not the property of any individual. It is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonged to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of groups life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, used believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

Question 38.
Explain the importance of social research.
The importance of social research are as follows :

1. Contribution development of knowledge :- Research In general contribute to the development of knowledge and expand its horizon. It gives rise to discovery, innovation and inventions in the area of knowledge. Research findings contribute, amend, modify, prove | disprove, existing theories and give scope for formulation of new theories. It is a maj | instrument in all round development of knowledge, skill science and technology. It leads acceleration of industrial activities and intellectual progress research not only contribuy economic progress of a nation but also bring changes in society.

2. Helps to social progress and develop rational attitude Social research gained importance in social science in general. Its significance in sociology increased in particular because science of society aimed at progress of human society. Social research also contributes to the knowledge and expand its horizon. It provides scientific knowledge Of social evils. Human Society is benefitted by its knowledge. It helps human beings to think rationally and humanistc way. Thereby it helps in social welfare activities.

3. Hepls ti the developments of all social science Social Research is useful to all social sciences. Methodology of social research is adopted in other sciences. It contributed to the growth and development of sciences.

The appropriate and reliable knowledge is provided by social research in relation to social structure and social groups the various misconception, superstitions will disappear due to the findings of social research. It leads to social progress.

4. Hepls to understand social changeSociety is dynamic. The changing nature of society is studied in social research. The causes of social behavior is analysised in social research. It helps to understand changes in society thereby assist to control the behavior of individuals. Social control can be achieved by performing suitable actions in society. It leads to understand thp direction of social progress.

The practical utility of social research is that individual acquire knowledge of dynamic society. It helps to take appropriate actions for the development of society and social welfare. Social research is the social progress and welfare.

IV. Answer any Two of the following in 15 sentences each: ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 39.
Briefly explain the role of August Comte in the development of Sociology.
Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduced a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution Confirms a new era for the study of sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “positive philosophy” during 1839.

He called sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world. August Comte insisted that, study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided sociology into two parts. They are : (1) social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major Institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:

(i) The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.

(ii) The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

(iii) The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.

August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have to taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.

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Question 40.
Make a list of folkways existing in your community.
The term folkways was introduced to the sociological literature by W.GSummer in his book with the little “Folkways” published in 1906. The word literately means “The ways of the folk or people”. Folkways are the accepted ways of behavior.

(a) Social in Nature: Folkways are the product of man’s group life. They are created by the groups for their sustenance and maintenance. Individuals get social recognition by conforming to the folkways. Every new generation absorbs folkways partly by deliberate teaching but mainly by observing and taking part in life about them.

(b) Unplanned Origin: The origin of folkways are very obscure. Sumner believed that they arise automatically and unconsciously, they are not the result of any advance planning.

(c) Informal Enforcement: Folkways are not as compulsive and obligatory as those of laws or morals. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of the society.

(d) Folkways are Innumerable: It is not possible for anyone to enlist all the folkways. No encyclopedia could contain all the folkways observed by all of the people of history. They are very diverse and numerous.

(e) Folkways are subject to change: Folkways are not static, but dynamic, folkways are change with changing social conditions. Some folkways undergo relatively rapid change, some are resist change very often.

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Question 41.
Prepare report on changes in marriage.
The characteristics of marriage are:

Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre¬literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. For example. In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called‘Half’persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory.

The Todas ofNilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.

Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differ significantly.

Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.

Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.

Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as- Vagdana. Homa, Kanyadana, Magalia Dharana, Saptapadi, Ashmarohana, etc

Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.

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Question 42.
Explain the importance of computers and internet in social research.
Modern society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects.

Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library. Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview