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## Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs
Max. Marks: 100

Note:

2. Draw maps and diagrams wherever necessary
3. Questions No.V is on Cartography.

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each. ( 1 × 10 = 10 )

Question 1.
What is the shape of the Earth?
Spherical shape

Question 2.
Mention the equatorial diameter of the Earth?
The equatorial diameter of the Earth is 12,756km.

Question 3.
Give an example for Metamorphic Rock.
Granite, Marble, Quartzite.

Question 4.
Define Mineral.
Mineral is a natural inorganic substance which has certain chemical and physical properties.

Question 5.
What is denudation?
The wearing or tearing away of the land surface is referred as “Denudation”.

Question 6.
What are Isotherms?
Lines drawn on the map or globe joining the places having the same temperature.

Question 7.
One fathom is equal to how many feet?
One fathom is equal to 6 feets.

Question 8.
Define the term Biosphere.
Biosphere means sphere of life or sphere of living organisms.

Question 9.
Name the important latitude that passes through the middle of India.
The Tropic of Caner 23 $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$° N latitude.

Question 10.
Define “Tsunami”.
It is a series of waves generated in an ocean water in the form of high waves.

II. Answer any ten of the following in two or three sentence each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Name any two types of Volcanoes.
Active volcano and Dormant Volcanoes.

Question 12.
What are exogenic and endogenic forces?
The internal fopces are also known as endogenic forces. There are mainly the land building forces.
The external forces are also known as Exogenic forces. These forces are found on the surface of the Earth.

Question 13.
What is air pressure? Name the instrument used to measure atmosphere pressure.
Air pressure is the force exerted by air on the Earth. The atmospheric pressure is measured by an instrument called Barometer.

Question 14.
Give two examples for local winds.
Loo (India) Foehn (Northern Alps) Brickfielder (Austrialia).

Question 15.
What is convectional rainfall?
The rain caused by the process of convection is called convectional rainfall. The rain is accompanied by thunder and lighting

Question 16.
Mention the difference between weather and climate.
Weather refers to frequent changes or average condition in the atmosphere of a place at a given time.
The average weather condition of palace for a long period like 30-33 years in known as climate.

Question 17.
Name any two important salts present in the ocean water.
Important salts resent in the ocean water are Sodium Chloride, Magnesium chloride, Calcium sulphate.

Question 18.
What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India?
India extends between 8°4’ N to 37°6’ N Latitude and 68° 7’ E to 97°23 E longitude.

Question 19.
Name then international boundaries of India with China and Pakistan.
The Me Mahon line-India and China (3488Km) by Henry Me Mahon.

Question 20.
Name any four tributaries of river Cauvery.
Arkavathi, Hemavathi, Harangai, Lokapavani, Shimsha, Kabini, Survarnavathi, Bhavani and Amaravathi.

Question 21.
What are natural hazards and disasters?
Natural Hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event that will have a negative effect on . people or the environment.
Natural Disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth.eg. Earthquakes, floods.

Question 22.
State the difference between flood and famine.
Floods refer to excess flow of water in the rivers. Floods are natural hazards related to the Monsoons, which are uncertain and uneven in the country.
Drought or famine is temporary reduction I water or rainfall availability below the normal for the specific period.

III. Answer any eight of the following in 25 to 30 sentences each. ( 5 × 8 = 40 )

Question 23.
What is Geography? Explain how Geography is an integrating discipline.
The scientific study of the earth surface and its various climates, natural resources and human activities. Geography is a discipline of synthesis. It is considered to be a liaison subject. It recognizes the fact that the world is system of interdependency. Geography as an integrating discipline stands midway between Natural Science and Social Science, Modern Geography focuses attention on man’s physical, biological and cultural environments and thereby point out the inter-relationship between human activities and the environment.

Physical geography has interface with Natural sciences. The traditional physical Geography is linked with Geology, Meteorology, Hydrology and pedology which have vey close link with Natural Sciences. Bio Geography is closely related to Botany and Zoology, Astronomical Geography is related to heavenly bodies such as Galaxy, solar system, stars, planets, satellites and mathematical Geography helps to represent latitudes, Longitudes shape of the Earth, size, Cartographic and Quantitative Techniques.

Geography also has interface with Social Sciences like History, Sociology, Economics, Political Science, commerce etc. These subjects have close links with other disciples as each one of them ahs spatial attributes.

Question 24.
Explain the revolution of the Earth with its effects.
The earth while rotating on it axis also revolves around the sun. This movement of the earth round the sun called earth’s Revolution. The path of the movement is called orbit.
July 4th the earth is far from the sun and is said to be in Aphelion position. Aph means away and hellion means Sun. At this point the distance between the sun and the earth is 152 million km. Jan 3rd the earth is nearest to the sun and is said to be in Perihelion position. Peri means near, hellion means sun. At this point the distance between the.sun and the earth is 147 million km. Effects of Revolution: The major effects of revolution are

• In equality of day and night.
• Occurrence of seasons.
• Distribution of important lines of latitude.
• Different climatic zones

In equality of day and night: The duration of day and night are not uniform, along all . degrees of latitudes through out the year. The variation in the length of day and night is caused by the inclination of the earth’s axis and revolution of the earth.

The angle of inclination of the earth is 23$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ away from the perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic and its direction is constant through out orbit. So the vertical rays of the sun moves form 23 $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ N to 23$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ S latitudes. From September 23 to march 21 the North Pole of the earth is tilted away from the sun and experiences darkness. At the same period the South Pole experiences day. At the equator the duration of day and night are almost equal though out the year.

Occurrence of Seasons: It is the most important effect caused by the revolution of the earth. The variations of temperature when the earth is at different location on its orbit are called the seasons. The difference of temperature in a duration of one year is caused as a result of Inclination of the earth’s axis and its parallelism.

There are four seasons in a year. They are:

1. Summer
2. Autumn
3. Winter
4. Spring.

As per the international Calendar, the four seasons have a period of three months.
From the point of view of the earth’s indication, there are four positions of solstices and equinoxes. So, there are four seasons according to the positions of the earth in one complete revolution around the sun. Those four seasons are:

Summer Solstice: On June 21st the northern hemisphere is tiled towards the sun while the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun. The rays of the sun fall vertically on the Tropic Cancer and he areas within the Artistic circle remain in sun light for all 24 hours. The northern hemisphere has longer days and shorter night. At this time the northern hemisphere has longer days and shorter night. At this time the northern hemisphere enjoys summer season and this potion is called “ summer solstice”. Solstice means sun stops.

Autumnal Equinox: On the 23rd September the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere are equally inclined or tilted towards the sun. The sun rays are vertical at the equator. As a result, the days and night are equal all over the world. At this time, in the northern hemisphere the season is neither hot nor cold. It is a situation between summer and winter seasons. It is called autumn season. At this time in the southern hemisphere, there is spring season. This position of the earth on 23rd September is known as autumnal equinox.

Winter Solstice: On 22nd December the southern hemisphere is inclined or tilted towards the sun, and northern hemisphere is inclined or tilted away from the sun. The sun is vertical at the Tropic of Capricorn, i.e. at 23 $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ os. At this time there is winter season in the northern hemisphere, and summer season in the southern hemisphere. This position is known as winter solstice.

Spring or Vernal Equinox: On 21st March the northern and southern hemisphere are equally inclined towards the sun. The conditions are similar to those of autumnal equinox. From 21st March to 21st June, the earth is moving on its northern limits. During this period, there is spring season in the northern hemisphere and autumn season in the southern hemisphere.

Distribution of important lines of latitude. Based on the revolution important latitudes such as equator, Tropic of cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, arctic and Antarctic circles are recognized.

Different climatic zones: The different climatic zone is the result of the revolution of the earth. Climatic zones depend on the important lines of latitude.
Between the equator and the tropic of cancer, we have the North Torrid Zone. Between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, we have the South Torrid Zone Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle, we have the North Temperate Zone. Between the topic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle, we have the south temperature Zone, between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole we have the North rigid zone, and between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole, we have the South Frigid Zone.

Question 25.
Write a detail note on Earthquakes.
An Earthquake is a sudden vibration or oscillation in the Crust of the Earth. It is a form of energy of wave motion transmitted through the surface layer of the Earth. The place of origin of an Earthquake in the Earth’s crust is called ‘Focus’. The point on the Earth surface which is perpendicular to the focus, receiving seismic waves is called ‘Epicentre’.

Causes of Earthquake: On the basis of occurrence earthquakes can be classified into three types. They occur due to several causes such as tectonic forces, folding, faulting, volcanic eruptions landslides, avalanches, man-made factor.

a. Tectonic Earthquakes: These are caused due to folding, faulting and displacement of blocks of rocks in the Earth’s crust. They are highly intensive and destructive seismic activities.

b. Volcanic Earthquakes: These are associated with the volcanic activities and are usually caused at great depths. They are with low intensity and magnitude. The destruction and damage are slightly lesser than earthquakes caused by Tectonic forces.

c. Earthquakes caused by man-made factors: Over interaction of man underground nuclear explosion etc. are causing great change in the crustal formation leading to seismic activity. E.g. Koynadam (India)-1967, Hoover dam(U.S.A)-1935, Mangla dam (Pakistan).

Effects of Earthquakes: Earthquakes cause violent disturbances and widespread damage and destruction, especially on the epicentre region.

• Earthquakes cause changes in the earth’s surface. Cracks and fissures develop in the earth’s crust.
• Vibrations, caused by earthquakes, lead to landslides in mountainous regions, damming the rivers.
• Vertical or horizontal cracks are formed, and the land is elevated or lowered, forming lakes.
• Deep cracks may be developed in dams after the earthquake. For instance, deep cracks were developed in the Koyna dam after the earthquake.
• The beds of rivers may be raised by the earthquakes. For example, the bed of the river Brahmaputra was raised during the Assam earthquakes.
• There is the greatest danger of falling of houses, roads railway lines factories, bridges, dams, aerodromes, and other man-made structures, resulting in loss of life and property.
• The underground water system is disturbed.

Question 26.
Name the major types of rocks and describe Sedimentary rocks.
The rocks which are formed due to aggregation and compactness of sediments are known as “sedimentary rocks.” According to their origin and composition, sedimentary rocks can be divided into two main categories. They are:

1. Inorganic rocks: Inorganic rocks are rocks formed from mineral matter which has been obtained by disintegration or decomposition of rocks. Inorganic rocks can be divided into two types. They are

a. Mechanically-formed rocks: The rock which have been formed form the accumulation of rock materials, derived form other rocks and have been cemented together are known as “ Mechanically formed rocks.” The mechanically formed rocks consist of sediments which have been carried and deposited by rivers, glaciers, winds or waves and cemented together with clay or line. On the basis of rock materials, these rocks can be divided into three main categories. They are:

1. 1.Rudaceous rocks
2. Aremaceous rocks
3. Argilious rocks

1.  Rudaceous rocks: Rudaceous rocks are formed due to cementation and consolidation of pebbles and boulders. Rudaceous rocks consist of rock pieces and grave, cemented together, by clay or line. They are porous and can hold water. If the rock pieces are angular in shape and cemented together, they are called breccias. If the rock pieces are rounded and cemented tighter, they are called conglomerate.

2. Arenaceous rocks: These are formed mainly due to deposition, commentating and consolidation of sane grains e.g. Sand stone.

3. argillaceous rocks: These rocks are formed largely by fine clay particles e..g. Shale or mudstone these are impermeable.

b. Chemically formed rocks: The chemical often settle down and hardened to form rocks known as chemically formed rocks. For example: Gypsum and rock salt, running water dissolves and carries chemicals and where evaporation takes place, these chemicals are deposited at the mouth of springs, caves or caverns or in lakes. Rock salt and gypsum are formed form deposit of salt in strata on the beds of lakes.

2. Organic Rocks: Organic rocks are formed form the remains of organisms, i.e. of animals and plants. Examples: coal, limestone etc. On the basis of lime and carbon content, organically formed rocks can be divided into two kinds, namely

• Calcareous rocks: Calcareous rocks are formed mostly from the remains of living organisms. These rocks contain calcium carbonate or lime. They include limestone and chalk. They are porous and soluble.
• Carbonaceous rocks: These are formed due to the transformation of vegetative matter. Under the impact of heat and pressure the remains of plants are turned into hard layers. E.g. coal.

Question 27.
Give a detail account of the geomorphic processes.
A land form is any natural formation of rock and dirt, found on the earth. A landform can be as large as a mountain range or as small as a hill. Landforms are natural features of the landscape, natural physical features of the earth’s surface eg. Valleys, plateaus, Mountains, plains, hills loess plains. The minor landforms include hills, ridges, valleys, basin etc. According to Geo-scientist the landforms are formed by the forces acting from the interior and on the surface of the Earth.

The processes carried out by Endogenic and Exogenic forces are called geomorphic processes. Endogenic forces: The internal forces are also known as endogenic forces. These are mainly the land building forces. Diastrophism includes all these processes tat move, elevate or build portions of the earth’s crust. The internal forces are also known as endogenic forces.

Exogenic Forces: The external forces are also known as Exogenic forces. These forces are found on the surface of the Earth, Which bring changes through degradation and aggradations process. River, glacier, w’ind, sea waves are the major sources of external forces.

Question 28.
What is weathering? Explain the types of weathering.
The process of disintegration and decomposition of rocks is known as “Weathering”.
There are three types of weathering

1. Mechanical weathering
2. Chemical weathering
3. Biological weathering
4. Mechanical weathering: The disintegration of rocks by mechanical way and without any chemical changes is called “Mechanical weathering”. It is also called “physical weathering”.

The process of Mechanical w eathering is in various forms, depending the types of rock. They are:

• Block disintegration: Due to temperature variation, there is continuous expansion and contraction in the rocks causing tension and stress. Later these rocks disintegrate into blocks known as “Block Disintegration”.
• Granular disintegration: Rocks consist of several types of minerals and these minerals react differently to heat. As a result, the rocks break into different mineral grain known as “Granular Disintegration”.
• Exfoliation: Due to the heat of the Sun, outer surfaced of rocks gets heated up, but inside it remains almost cool. This makes the rock to expand and crack. The thin layer of rocks peels off, like the peeling of an onion. This process is Galled “Exfoliation”.

2. Chemical weathering: Disintegration and Decomposition of rocks by chemical processes is called “Chemical weathering”.

In this process secondary or new minerals are developed from the original minerals of
the rocks. The rain w’ater and atmospheric gases are the main agents of chemical weathering. It is vey common in humid regions.
There are four types of chemical weathering process. They are;

• Oxidation: The rain water with oxygen reacts on rocks containing iron and produce oxides. This chemical reaction is known as “oxidation”. The common process of rusting of iron is an example of oxidation.
• Carbonation: The rain water with carbon-di-oxide becomes a weak carbonic acid andit reacts with calcium carbonate or limestone to form calcium bicarbonate, which dissolves easily. This process is called “Carbonation”. It is very active in limestone regions. .
• Hydration: The rock minerals take up water the increased volume creates physical stress within the rock. As a result certain minerals like feldspar and gypsum are reduced into powder. This process is called “Hydration”.
• Solution: The rain water is able to dissolve some of the soluble minerals, such as rock-salt, gypsum, potash. This process is called “Solution”.

c. Biological weathering: The disintegration of rocks caused by plants, animals and human beings is called “Biological Weathering”.

1. Plants: The roots of the plant grow through soil and in the cracks of rocks to find water and minerals. As the roots grow deep in the rock they widen and disintegrate the rocks. This process is most prominent in thick forests and vegetative regions.

2. Animals: The burrowing animals like rats, rabbits, ants, earthworms and termites influence in the breaking up of rocks and make passages below the ground. The seepage of air and water through these passage results in rapid weathering of rocks.

3. Human beings: Human beings play an important role weathering of rocks, through activities like agriculture, mining quarrying, oil drilling, deforestation etc.

Question 29.
Describe the pressure belts of the globe with a neat diagram.
The distribution of pressure is not equal on the earth’s surface. It changes from palace to place and time to time on the basis of air temperature and rotation of the earth. Any area in the atmosphere where air pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas is called “ High pressure”/ Thee are 4 high pressure belts and 3 low pressure belts on the earth’s surface.

Equatorial Low pressure belt: This belt lies between latitudes 5°N and 5° S. The Sun’s rays are almost vertical on the equator throughout the year. As a result, the . temperature is uniformly high and pressure is low throughout the year. It is also known as “Doldrums”. The air gets warm and rises upward. Horizontal movement of air is absent and convectional currents occur. This is the zone of convergence of the trade winds.

Sub tropical high pressure belts: The air ascended in the form of convectional currents from the equatorial region partly descends in the between 30 to 40’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. The descending air has thus formed two high pressure zones known as subtropics high pressure belts. It is the zone from which trade and anti-trade winds originate. This belt is also known as “ horse altitudes’. It is dry and quite stable. The name horse latitude is given by the ancient sailors who used to transport horses on ships. Due to absence of strong winds, some times the ship could not move with horses. Hence sailors used to dump horses to make the ship move forward.

Sub Polar low pressure belts: In between polar high pressure and sub-tropical high pressure belt, the sum-tropical low pressure belts are situated. They lies in between 60’ to 70’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. They are formed with spinning action of rotation of the earth and also uprising air as an effect of incoming cold polar winds.

P-olar high pressure belts: The Polar Regions are characterized with low temperature. The air raised at the equator descends around the poles causing high pressure belts. The cold polar winds blow outward from this zone.

Question 30.
Give an account of topography of the ocean floor.
On the basis of the depth, the ocean floor can be divided into four zones, parts or relief features. They are, .
1. The continental Shelf: The gently sloping portion of the continent or land that lies submerged below other sea is called the continental shelf. The continental shelf has a very gentle slope. It extends form the shore line to depths between 180 and 200 meters. Average width of the continental shelves is about 48km. The extent of the continental shelf depends on the relief of the broadening land masses. If the coastal area is a plateau area, the continental shelf will be very broad. On the other hand, if the coastal region is hilly or mountainous, the continental shelf will be very narrow or even absent for example the Atlantic Ocean has 2.3%, the Pacific Ocean has 5.7% and the India Ocean has 4.2%.

2. The continental slope: The zone of steep slope that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep sea plains is called “continental slope”. It is the transitional zone lying between the continental shelf and the deep sea plains. The continental slope is very steep. It extends from 182 meters to 3,600 meters. The angle of the continental slope is 2 to 5 degre3es or even more. It occupies only 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. But it varies from ocean to ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has broader continental slopes and accounts for 12.4%. But it is 7% of the Pacific Ocean and 6.5% of the Indian Ocean.

3. The deep sea plains: The level and rolling areas of the ocean floor are generally called deep sea plains or abyssal plains or the ocean plains. They lie between 3,000 and 6,000 meters below other surface of the ocean. They occupy vast area of the ocean floor and account for about 82.7% of the total sea floor. They cover about 90% in the Indian Ocean. Their depth ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 meters. They are covered by oozes, which are the remains of deep sea creatures and plants, and of red volcanic dust.

4. The Ocean Deeps: The long narrow and deep troughs on the ocean floor are known as ‘ocean deep” or ‘trough’. They cover only 1% of the ocean floor. They are most common neat the coasts where young fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes abound. Some they are tectonic in origin. They are the deepest portions of the ocean. Deeps may be caused due to tectonic forces, i.e. faulting earthquakes etc.’There are 57known deeps. Of these 32 are found in Pacific Ocean, 19in the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean. The deepest trench in the world is Challenger deep located in Mariana Trench to the west of Philippines in the North Pacific Ocean.

Question 31.
Name the physical divisions of India and explain the coastal plains.
This is the region all along the Indian coastline, lying between the coast and the mountain ranges of the peninsular plateau. India has 6100 km from Gujarat inn the west to West Bengal in the east. The average width is 10-25 kms. The coastal plain of India is divided into two parts.

The West Coastal plains: It is extends between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. It is narrower than the east coastal plains, stretching to a length of about 1400km and width of 10 to 80km from the Rann of katchchh to kanyakumari. The west coastal plains have Gujarat, Konkan, Karnataka and Malabar Coasts.

The Gujarat Coast comprises of Rann of Kachchh and Cambay coasts. It is formed by the alluvial deposits of Sabarmati, Mahi, Luni and other small streams. Gujarat has the longest coast line in India.Kandla and okha are famous sea ports and alang is the biggest ship breaking centre. It produces highest salt in the country.

Konkan Coast lies to the south of Gujarat coast and extends line which provides suitable site foniatural seaports. Eg: Mumbai, Navasheva, Marmagoa, Karwar, New Mangalore etc., this coast records highest coastal erosion. It is very rich in Petroleum and natural gas. Karnataka coast: it is a part of Konkan coast. It extends from karwar in the north to Mangalore in the south. It is the narrowest part of west coastal plains. Karwar and New Mangalore are important ports in this belt. Sea Bird, the naval base near Karvvar is the largest naval base in India.

The Malabar Coast extends from Mangalore to Kanvakumari, Sand dunes, lagoons and backwaters are the important features of this coast. Cochin or Kochi is the biggest seaport in this coast. Backwaters of Kerala facilitate navigation and tourists enjoy travelling though small country boats. The first south west monsoon rainfall is received in this coast.

East coastal Plains: It lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal stretching from the delta of Hooghly in the North to Kanvakumari in the south. Compared to the west coastal plains the east coastal plains are broader.

The Utkal Coast: It is the coastal plain of Orissa state. It extend for about 400kmms, north from Subarnarekha river to south of the Rushikulya river. It has a chilka lake, which is the largest salt water lake in India, Para deep is the important horbour located here.

Coromandel Coast: The southern part of east coast is known as the Coromandel Coast. It gets more rainfall from the north east monsoons and it is highly affected by cyclones. The oldest harbor Chennai located here.

Question 32.
Explain the North Indian Rivers of India.
The Himalayan Rivers or North Indian Rivers: These rivers take birth in Himalayan Mountains by glaciers and flow’s throughout the year (perennial). There are three main river systems in the Himalayan rivers. They are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
1. The Indus river system: The Indus is one of the most important river systems of India. It rises near Mt. Kailash (6714m), has a length of2880km, of which 709 km lies in India. It flows through narrow gorges between Ladakh and Zaskar ranges in the North West direction in Jammu & Kashmir. It is one of the oldest river systems of the world. Major part of its course and catchment area are in Pakistan. The main tributaries are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutluj.

2. The Ganga: The Ganga is the longest (2500Km) and the largest river system of the country. It is generally called, the ‘National river’ of India. The Ganga has two head streams-the Bhagirathi and the Alakananda. The Bhagirathi takes it is birth in Gangothri and Alakananda rises near Badrinath in Garhwal Himalayas. These two meet at Devaprayag, and continue to flow as the Ganga, after flowing across the Himalayas; the Ganga enters the Great. Plains at haridwar.

From Haridwar it flows towards south an south east up to Mirzapur. It continues to flow’ eastwards in the Gangetic plains of Bihar and West Bengal and enters Bangladesh, where it joins the Brahmaputra and become padma, and finally flow’s into Bay of Bengal. The important tributaries of Ganga are Ramganga, Ghagra, Gandak, Gomati, Bagmati, Kosi, Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, sone, ken, damodar etc.

3. The Brahmaputra river system: It rises at Manasarovar lake (chanmyandung). In Tibet it is known as Tsangpo. It enters Aruncal Pradesh and is known as Brahmaputra. It joins. Ganga at Golunde (Bangladesh). The total length it flows is 2900km. and only 885km. in India. In Bangladesh it is called Meghana.

Question 33.
Write briefly about the types of soils found in India.
Soil is the minute or finer rock particles found on the su rface of the Earth. It is formed naturally, due to the weathering of rocks, under the influence of climate.
The main types of soil in India are:

1. Alluvial soil: This soil is formed by depositional work of rivers and they are mainly found in the flood plains and deltas. Alluvial soil covers largest geographical are in the country. They are mainly distributed in the river plains of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under alluvial soil. It is also found in the deltas of east flowing rivers. Alluvial soils are classified into two types.

(a) Bhangar: Older alluvium, coarse and pebble like in nature, found at the lower depths of the plain.
(b) Khadar: New alluvium, finer in nature, found in the low lying flood plains and rich in fertility

2. Black soil: The black soils covered more area in peninsular plateau. This soil is also called ‘Cotton soil’ or “Regur soil”. It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water from long period and become hard whenever it is dry. It is light-black to dark-black in colour. Maharashtra and Gujarat Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Black soils are good for Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pulses, Millets, Citrus fruits, etc.

3. Red soil: This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest parts of peninsular region are covered with red soil. TamilNadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut, Tobacco, Millets are the major crops cultivated in this soil.

4. Laterite soil: The hot and humid tropical regions of India are rich in laterite soil. This soil is derived from the fragmentation and disintegration of rocks in the mountain ranges. It is mainly found in the Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and Northeastern hills of India. Plantation crops like Tea, coffee, Rubber, Cashew nut are cultivated in this soil.

5. Desert soil: This soil is also called arid soil. They are mainly found in the desert and semi-desert regions of Western and North western parts of India. This soil has the least water holding capacity and humus content. Generally it is not suitable for cultivation of crops. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Haryana. With water facility crops like Bajra, Pulses and Guar are cultivated in this soil.

6. Mountain Soil: The Himalayan mountain valleys and hill slopes are covered with Mountain or Forest soil. It is found in the mountain slopes of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utarkhand regions, Crops like Tea, Almond, saffron are cultivated in this soil.

Question 34.
Explain the major types of forests of India.
The peninsular region of India has the largest forest cover with around 57% of the total forest area. According to geo-climatic conditions, forests are classified into:

a. Evergreen Forests: These forests are found in the regions of heavy rainfall and high, temperature. Tail umbrella shaped trees with dense assemblage is a prominent feature of this forest. The eve4rgree forest always looks green because various.species of trees are found here and they shed leaves in different seasons. The hardwood trees, rose wood, white cedar, toon, gurjan, chaplash, ebony, Mahogany, canes, bamboo, shisham etc.
These are found in North-east India, Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar islands, parts of Assam and some areas of Himalayan foot hills.

b. The Deciduous forests: The deciduous forest covers a wide range of rainfall regimes. The trees of these forests seasonally shed their leaves. The Indian deciduous forest is found in a range of landscapes from the plains to the hills. These forests provide shelter to most endangered wild life in the country, such as the Tiger, Asian Elephant, Bison, Gaur etc. The deciduous forest are two types ‘

(i) Moist Deciduous forests: The moist deciduous forests are found in wet regions, receiving annual rainfall between 100cm to 200cam and temperature of 25° C to 30°C. The trees of these forests shed their leaves during spring and early summer, They are found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, ChotaNagpur Plateau, the siwaliksetc.

(ii) The Dry Deciduous Forests: The dry deciduous forest are found I the areas where annual rainfall is between 50cm to 150 cm and temperature of 25° C to 30° C. Sal is the most significant tree found in this forest. Varieties of acacia and bamboo are also fund here. These forests are found in areas of central Deccan plateau, South-east of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

(iii) The mountain forests: As the name indicates these forests are confined to the Himalayan region, where the temperature is less compared to other parts of the country. The trees in this forest are cone shape with needle like leaves. The important trees are oak, fir, pin e spruce, silver fir, deodhar, devdar, juniper, picea chestnut etc. They provide softwood for making country boats, packing materials and sport articles.

c. The Desert forests: These forests are found in the areas of very low rainfall. Thorny bushes, shrubs, dry grass, acacia, cacti and babul are the important vegetation found in these forests. The Indian wild date known as ‘Khejurs”, is common in the deserts. They have spine leaves, long roots and thick fleshy stems in which they store water to survive during the long drought. These vegetations are found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.

d. The Mangrove Forests: These forests occur along the river deltas (Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna) of eastern coast and also concentrated in the coastal areas of Katchch, Kathiawar, and Gulf of Khambar. The mangrove forests in the Ganga delta are called Sunder bans because, they have extensive growth of Sundari trees. The trees in these forests are hard, durable and are used in boat making and as fuel. In the recent years mangrove vegetation is being grown in the coastal areas to control effects of tidal waves and coastal erosion.

IV. Answer any one of the following. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 35.
Explain the important types of Rocks with suitable examples.
Rock refers to the hard and resistant materials of the earth’s crust. But scientifically rock includes even soft and loose materials like chalk, clay, etc. So, rock refers to any solid materials, hard or soft of which the crust of the earth is formed. All rocks do not have the same chemical composition. But minerals have their own chemical compost in and physical prosperities. The earth’s crust is made up of various types of rocks
Types of Rocks: Rocks can be classified into three major groups on the basis of their origin or mode of formation. They are:

A. Igneous rocks: The term Igneous is derived from the Latin word “Ignis”, means fire. Thus the igneous rocks are formed by the cooling and solidification of molten material which is called magma. Igneous rocks are also called primary rocks, because they were the firs to be formed. As they are the rocks from which all other types of rocks are derived, they are also called parent rocks.

Igneous rocks are commonly classified on the basis of mode of formation into two major types.

1. Intrusive rocks
2. Extrusive rocks.

1. Intrusive rocks: The magma cannot escape out to the earth’s surface, it cols slowly inside the earth’s crust and hardens into rock. This type of rock is known as Intrusive Igneous rock. E.g. Granite and dolerite. These rocks can be divided into two type’s a. Plutonic rocks and b. Hybabyssal rocks.

• Plutonic rocks: The rocks which are formed due to cooling of magma at great depth inside the earth are called Plutonic igneous rocks.
• Hybabyssal rocks: These are intermediate rocks between the extruded volcanic rocks and the deep plutonic rocks. They are formed due to cooling and solidification of magma in cracks, pores, crevices etc.

II. Extrusive rocks: Rocks formed by cooling and solidification of lava on the surface of the Earth is called extrusive igneous rocks. E.g. Basalt.

B. Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks which are formed due to aggregation and compactness of sediments are known as sedimentary. In other words, sedimentary rocks are formed bye day the deposition of sediments derived form older rocks, planets and animals remains by river, winds, glaciers etc and these sediments are hardened into rocks by pressure. As they are formed by the consolidation of sediments. They are called sedimentary rocks. They are also called stratified rocks,

a. Mechanically-formed rocks: The rock which have been formed form the accumulation of rock materials, derived form other rocks and have been cemented together are known as “ Mechanically formed rocks.” The mechanically formed rocks consist of sediments which have been carried and deposited by rivers, glaciers, winds or waves and cemented together with clay or line. On the basis of rock materials. These rocks can be divided into three main categories. They are: Rudaceous rocks, Arernaceous rocks and Argilious rocks.

b. Chemically formed rocks: The chemical often settle down and hardened to form rocks known as chemically formed rocks. For example: Gypsum and rock salt, running water dissolves and carries chemicals and where evaporation takes place, these chemicals are deposited at the mouth of springs, caves or caverns or in lakes. Rock salt and gypsum are formed form deposit of salt in strata on the beds of lakes.

c. Organically formed rocks: Organic rocks are formed form the remains of organisms, i.e. of animals and plants. Examples: coal, limestone etc. On the basis of lime and carbon content, organically formed rocks can be divided into two kinds, namely

• Calcareous rocks: Calcareous rocks are formed mostly from the remains of living organisms. These rocks contain calcium carbonate or lime. They include limestone and chalk. They are porous and soluble.
• Carbonaceous rocks: These are formed due to the transformation of vegetative matter. Under the impact of heat and pressure the remains of plants are turned into hard layers. E.g. coal.

C. Metamorphic rocks: Rock which has been changes either in form or in composition without disintegration is called metamorphic rocks. These rocks are metamorphosed form igneous sedimentary rocks. Igneous and sedimentary rocks may undergo chemical and physical changes because of pressure and heat and form metamorphic rocks. The intense heat and pressure in the earth’s curst alters the composition and appearance of rocks completely or partially to produce a new type of rocks.In this manner metamorphic rocks are formed. Marble, Diamond, Quartzite, Ruby, Emerald are the examples of metamorphic rock.

Question 36.
Describe the work of river with suitable diagrams.
River is an important external agent of denudation on the ever-changing face of the Earth.
The work of river is more or less common in all the drainage systems of the world.
The work of river consists of three closely interrelated activities.

1. Erosional work: The process of wearing and taking away the part of rock is known as ‘Erosion’. It depends upon the volume and velocity of water, nature of slope and the nature of rocks. The erosional work of the river is performed in two ways.

a. The Mechanical and
b. The Chemical erosion.

There are various landforms associated to erosional work of river.

a. ’V’ Shaped valley: In the mountain course the speed of the river is greater and volume is less. As the water rushes down the steep slopes there is maximum vertical or later erosion. The rapid down cutting or vertical erosion results in the formation of ‘V’ shaped valley.

b. Gorge: A deep and narrow valley with steep rocky sides in the river course is known as ‘Gorge’. They are formed by the regular vertical cutting by the rivers in the valleys eg. Narmada gorge.

c. I shape valley: A vey steep, deep river valley formed by the river, looking like ‘I’, is called T Shaped valley. These are very deep compared to gorges.

d. Canyon: It is a wide, deep and steep valley almost with vertical walls like feature found in the arid or semi arid regions is called ‘Canyon’ eg. Grand Canyon of River Colorado in USA.

e. Potholes: These are the small depressions in the rocky beds of other river valley.
They are formed by corrosion. Pebbles, sand and small rocks carried by the river swirled around on the river bed. This action erodes the rock on the river bed forming potholes.

f. Waterfalls: Huge volume of water falling from a great height along the course of a river is called “Waterfalls’. They are formed when the hard and soft rocks come in the way of flowing river. The soft rock gets eroded faster and hard rock does not erode easily. Therefore huge amount of water falls from great height and creates waterfalls. Eg. The Jog falls, The Angel falls, The Victoria falls.

g. River Capture: It is formed mainly due to head-ward erosion by the river near its source. When the source of a river is captured by another major and strong river it is called‘River Capture’.

2. Transportational work: The process of carrying away the eroded materials is known as ‘Transportation’. The rock materials and eroded particles carried by a river is called its Load. The transportation capacity of a river is based on velocity of water, volume of water, load, slope, smooth valley floor etc.

The major landforms associated with the transportational work of the river are,

a. Alluvial fans: The term alluvium refers to the debris transported and deposited by rivers. When the fast flowing river enters the plateau or plain region, it experience sudden decline in gradient and obstruction in its path. Due to obstruction of the river spreads and deposits many of its light materials in fan shape known as ‘alluvial fans’.

b. Alluvial cones: In the plateau and foot hill region when the river spreads out, the eroded materials carried by the river is deposited in conical shape called ‘Alluvial cones’.

3. Depositional work: The process of carrying and accumulating the eroded materials by the river at the lower course is called ‘deposition’. In the lower course due to gentle slope the river slows down and deposits most of its materials on the banks, course and the mouth.

The important landforms resulting from depositional work of the river are,

a. Meanders: In the lower course, river flows slowly in zig zag or curved manner due to smaller obstruction in its path. A curve or loop formed by the river in its path is called ‘Meander’. When the river course formed by such crescent shaped loops due to continuous lateral deposition it is called meandering course.

b. Ox-bow Lakes: The ox-bow lakes are formed by depositional and erosional actions taking place simultaneously and they are a result of excessive meandering. The River which flows through the shorter route leaving the curve of the meander cut off and crescent shaped lake is formed known as ‘Ox-bow lakes’.

c. Flood Plains: When the river is in floods the water over flows on its bank and spreads in the surrounding regions. The silt carried by the water gets deposited in these areas and creates flat plains on both the banks of the rive known as ‘Flood Plains’.

d. Delta: A triangular shaped alluvial deposition forced at the mouth of the river is called ‘Delta’. Important types of deltas are
a. Arcuate or Common delta b. Bird-foot delta

e. Distributaries: As the river approaches the sea or Ocean, due to reduction in gradient, joining of tributaries, its volume increases, speed decreases hence, the river begins to break up into a number of branches from the main river called ‘Distributaries’.

f. Estuary: Estuaries are the tidal mouth of a riverhaving a narrow, gradually widening lay at the mouth. In Estuary River water is mixed with sea water. Eg. The Narmada estuary, The Kali estuary.

V. (A) Answer the following in a sentence each. ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 37.
What is Cartography?
The science and art of making maps, charts, globes and rile models is known as Cartography.

Question 38.
Define Map.
A map is defined as a symbolical and conventional representation of the earth or a portion fit drawn to scale on a flat surface and bounded by the geographical co-ordinates as viewed from above.

Question 39.
What is Scale?
A scale is the ratio of the distance between two points on the map and their corresponding distance on the ground.

Question 40.
What is Index?
The features show on a map is indicated by a guide called map index.

Question 41.
Give an example for small scale map.
Small Scale maps: The Maps drawn on the scale below 1 cm: 15Km or 1:15, 00,000 eg. Atlas and Wall Maps. These maps show broad physical and cultural features.

(B) Identify the latitudes and longitudes for the given places. ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 42.
Mysore

Question 43.
Tumkur

Question 44.
Mangalore

Question 45.
Haveri

Question 46.
Bidar

(C) Draw diagrams to the following. ( 2 × 2 = 4 )

Question 47.
Pressure belts of the globe.
Pressure belts of the globe.

Question 48.
Orographic rainfall
Orographic rainfall

(D) Draw the outline map of India, mark and name the following

Question 49.
Map drawing (2)