Karnataka 1st PUC English Workbook Answers Articulation Passages for Comprehension

What is Reading Comprehension?
“I took a speed reading course and read ‘War and Peace’ in twenty minutes. It involves

– Woody Allen, US movie actor, comedian and director.

Saying the book involved Russia, as Woody Allen did, is not a demonstration of comprehension. It is a demonstration of memorisation. Asking one to only recall facts, demonstrates the lowest level of assessing a reader’s degree of comprehension.

Comprehension is a learning process. It is the ability to understand and gain meaning from what has been read and being able to communicate this information to others. It is the reason for reading. One must Learn To Read in order to Read To Leam – Learning to Read involves well-known sequentially taught skills:

  • Phonemic Awareness – The ability to hear and identify units of sounds in spoken words.
  • Phonics – The relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language.
  • Vocabulary – Words one must know to communicate effectively.
  • Comprehension -The ability to understand and gain meaning from what is read.

Strategies that can help students read more quickly and effectively include,

(a) Previewing: Reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection.

(b) Predicting: Using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension; using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure; using knowledge about the author to make predictions about writing style, vocabulary, and content.

(c) Skimming and scanning: Using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions.

(d) Guessing from context: Using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words, instead of stopping to look them up.

(e) Paraphrasing: Stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text. Remember, the more you read, the more your vocabulary will grow.

Read the following passages and answer the questions set on them.

i. Shellfish in Oman

The diverse riches of the sea have always played a significant role in Oman’s economy and lifestyle of her people. The nation’s fishing, industry continues to increase in importance as research into its marine life grows stronger.

An animal that is of enormous importance to the south-eastern coast of Omanis, the abalone, a shellfish has become the centre of a multimillion dollar industry.

Once, abalone shellfish were brought to the surface in the hope that the soft tissue contained beautiful pearls. Today, the shellfish are caught for a different reason – restaurant menus! The fresh white shellfish has a distinctive and much admired flavour and it is the most highly valued product from Omani waters. It is fished exclusively along the shores of Dhofar.

This distinctive shellfish has only one shell, unlike other shellfish which have two. The shell is extremely beautiful. Light is diffracted by geometrically arranged crystals within the shell, creating a wonderful shine. The shells of several abalone can be used for decorative purposes, and to make jewellery and buttons.
Abalone live in shallow marine waters with rocky bottom conditions.

Young abalone shelter in small groups, holding onto the underside of medium-sized boulders, whereas adults live grouped up to a dozen together in rocky cracks. They can only survive successfully in areas where cold, nutritious water rises from the sea bed. There, in the shallow, brightly lit conditions, the abalone shellfish live. The environmental requirements for cool water conditions are rarely met, and, as a result, the geographical occurrence and extent of abalone fisheries worldwide is extremely restricted.

The coast of Dhofar in Oman is one of the special environments that supports abalone populations. The southern shore of Oman experiences monsoon winds across the surface of the sea from April to September. As these winds skim the surface, the rich cold water from the depths of the Arabian sea can easily rise and move towards the shore.

Abalone are harvested after the monsoon period, between October and March. Fishermen dive to a depth of ten metres assisted only by a face mask and, perhaps, fins. Groups of up to ten men search the sea bed for abalone encrusted boulders and deftly remove the shells using a knife, before coming up for air. A good diver searches for large adults and will collect up to 600 specimens per day. In order to do this, the diver may have to cover an area of 100 square metres.

Question 1.
Why is Oman’s fishing industry continuing to expand?
Answer:
The main sea product off the coast of Oman are Abalone Shellfish which are in demand all over the world as a delicay in restaurants. Their shells are also used for decorative purposes. This growing demand has resulted in the expansion of Oman’s fishing industry.

Question 2.
Why was abalone shellfish originally important?
Answer:
Because its soft tissue contained beautiful pearls.

Question 3.
How is the abalone different from other shellfish?
Answer:
Abalone live in shallow marine waters with rocky bottom conditions holding on to the undersides of medium sized boulders. They live in small groups which the other fish can’t. They have only one shell unlike other shell fish which have two.

Question 4.
State the three uses of abalone shells.
Answer:
Three uses of Abalone shells are

  • For decorative purpose
  • To make jewellary and
  • To make buttons.

Question 5.
Mention one of the factors contributing to Oman’s growing economy.
Answer:
The coast of Dhofar in Oman has the special environmental requirement of cool water conditions that support Abalone fish.

Question 6.
The abalone is fished in
Answer:
Coast of Dhofar in Oman.

Question 7.
When are abalone harvested?
Answer:
After the monsoon period between October and March.

Question 8.
Which part of the year is best suited for harvesting abalone?
Answer:
Between October and March.

Question 9.
Bring out the difference between the life of the young and adult abalone.
Answer:
Young Abalone: They live in shallow marine water with rocky bottom holding onto the underside of boulders which shelter small groups.
Adult Abalone : They live in groups up to a dozen together in rocky cracks. They can survive only in cold areas.

Question 10.
How are abalone fished under sea?
Answer:
Fishermen dive to a depth of ten metres under sea, assisted only by a face mask and fins.
Groups of upto ten men search the sea bed for abalaone encrusted boulders and deftly remove the shells using a knife.

Question 11.
Give the meaning of the phrase ‘multi-million dollar’ in the context of the passage.
Answer:
The phrase ‘multi-million dollar’ means that there are plenty of industries based on abalone shellfish which has considerably increased the economy of Oman.

Question 12.
Why does a diver use a knife?
Answer:
A diver uses a knife to detach abalone from the boulders and to remove their shells.

ii. Good twin, Bad twins

My first encounter with the myth that twins come packaged as a pair – one good and one bad – came more than 20 years ago in my local supermarket. As I pushed my shopping trolley with my ten month old twin daughters towards a woman, she said, Which one’s the good one and which one’s the bad one?’ I was speechless and hurried past.

Twins are up against the human enthusiasm for comparing, contrasting and labelling people. Since twins are born a ‘matched set’, they are often seen as symbols of the good and bad in all of us. Ancient ; myths and modem movies are full of situations where twins qre made to represent polar opposites. Unfortunately, most people have more familiarity with twin myths than with living, breathing twins, who are, after all, just two little kids. As one mother of adult twin sons puts it, ‘I was amazed at how

good both my twin sons were. From an early age there was so much care and compassion between them. If I offered one a biscuit, he wouldn’t take it until he made sure that his brother was going to get one too. I tried, but I could never get my single-bom kids to be as thoughtful of each other.’ She says die protected her boys from intrusive public scrutiny and twin myths while they were growing up by giving them distinctly different names. She never dressed them alike and avoided emphasizing on their twinship.

Parents have the job of ensuring that their multiples have a chance to fulfil themselves, and to grow up to develop their individual potential. To do that, parents need to get rid of the myths at the back of their minds, and to resist any impulse to favour one over the other. The key is to encourage both of them to develop their strengths and abilities, whether or not they are the same as the other twin’s. While few parents believe the myth of good twin/bad twin, some fall into the trap of contrasting their twins’ personality traits and abilities: easy and difficult, pretty and smart.

Of course, there are times when a parent becomes disenchanted with one over the other. Wise parents keep these feelings to themselves. When they speak of differences between their twin children, they translate them into positive points, and avoid negative labels. However, bad behaviour should always be disapproved of, as long as it is the behaviour, and not the child, which is the focus of the disapproval.

Within the family, parents can control the behaviour of relatives who may believe in the twin myth. But there is no easy way to protect multiples from inappropriate questions and comments which they may meet outside the family circle. The best defense is the attitude towards twinship and about any justify differences between children. Perhaps you may never experience the twin myth, but if you do, be ready with a positive mind.

Question 1.
Where did the author come across the first twin myth?
Answer:
The author came across the first twin myth more than 20 years ago at the local supermarket.

Question 2.
What difference did the mother of the twin sons find between these two and her other children?
Answer:
If the mother offered one of the twins a biscuit he wouldn’t take it until he made sure that his brother was also going to get one. She could never get her single-bom kids to be as thoughtful of their siblings.

Question 3.
Why are twins often classified as good and bad?
Answer:
Because of their behaviour and attitude and the comparison between them.

Question 4.
What advice does the writer give about bad behaviour?
Answer:
Parents of twins at times may become disenchanted with one over the other. Wise ones keep thpse feelings to themselves and refrain from labelling them. However, bad behaviour should always be disapproved of as long as the focus is on the behaviour and not on the errant child.

Question 5.
What trap do some parents fall into?
Answer:
Some parents fall into the trap of contrasting their twins’ individual personality traits and abilities as easy and difficult, pretty and smart.

Question 6.
How do wise parents overcome the twin Myth?
Answer:
Wise parents keep the feeling to themselves when they speak of differences between their twin children and translate them into positive points and avoid negative labels.

Question 7.
Why do you think myths in general float around?
Answer:
Most people believe upon the myths than the living.

Question 8.
‘Twins are up against the human enthusiasm for comparing, contrasting and labelling people’. Draw conclusions from your reading of the passage.
Answer:
The best way is an attitude towards friendship and ignoring any differences that exist between children. If we are already with a positive mind set, we can really get rid of this myth.

iii. The man who conquered every peak in Europe

During a daring two-month climbing expedition in some of Europe’s most volatile regions, Rod Baber, a 29-year- old former telecom salesman, has survived rock falls and avalanches, sidestepped landmines and climbed one peak at midnight to avoid armed mountain patrols. He has spent a night on a treacherous one-metre ice ledge, battled altitude sickness and used Cuban cigars to bribe the shadowy figures who control mountain access.

For his troubles, he will enter the Guinness Book of World Records as the climber who has conquered the highest peak in each of the 47 European countries in the least time, saving four years off the record of seven years that had been set two years previously. It seems an extreme way to earn a place in the history books. The idea of doing the record started in 1997. When Baber, who became a climbing fanatic in his teens after being sent on an adventure weekend, was spending an evening with some work colleagues.

The conversation got around to climbing mountains and, from then on, he was hooked, and spent hours on the telephone to potential sponsors, trying to get them to agree to give him financial support for his venture.

Once he had received the first promise of money, Baber went into serious training. Apanel of professional climbers was called in to draw up a list of the 47 peaks, which included Mt. Elberus in Russia (5,642m), the tallest mountain in Europe, and the highest point in Monaco, just 162 m, both of which he climbed along other peaks to climb 44 peaks during five months in 1998. Frustratingly, weather and politics slowed him down.

There were three left to do: 2,656m Mt. Daravica in Kosovo, whose slopes were studded with mines: Mt Shikhara in Georgia, whose steep sides make the 5,068m ascent difficult and dangerous: and Mt Ararat in Turkey, whose summit is nearly 5 km above sea level.

Through a combination of support from local people, bribing officials, luck and sheer determination to achieve the record, Baber has done it. He does not see anything pointless or strange about his record. Work isn’t challenging enough, and we all love a challenge.

The most important thing is happiness, and I just love climbing,’ says Baber, whose efforts raised several thousand pounds for various charities. He plans next to conquer the highest peak in every country in the world. He reckons he will be able to complete the remaining 199 peaks at the rate of a continent a year. ‘I’d like to lead a normal life,’ he says, ‘but I’m on the mountain wagon now.’

Question 1.
How was Baber employed before he began making records?
Answer:
Baber was employed as a telecom salesman before he began making records.

Question 2.
Name the problems Baber faced during his attempt.
Answer:
During a duration of two-month climbing expedition in some of Europe’s most volatile regions. Baber has survived rock falls and avalanches, sidestepped landmines and even climbed one peak at midnight to avoid armed mountain patrols.

Question 3.
Baber entered the Guinness Book of World records because .
Answer:
He has conquered the highest peak of each of the 47 European countries, in the least time.

Question 4.
What started Baber’s interest in mountaineering?
Answer:
Baber became a climbing enthusiast while in his teens, after being sent on an adventure weekend in 1997. When he was spending an evening with his colleagues, the conversation got around to climbing mountains and he got hooked on the mission of climbing the highest peaks of each of the 47 European countries in the least time.

Question 5.
What qualities in Baber made his achievement possible?
Answer:
The fact that he was a climbing fanatic from his teens, his adventurous spirit, willingness to take risks and face challenges, physical endurance, dedication, single minded determination all these qualities along with his sense of being happy on mountain tops have made it possible.

Question 6.
What does Baber mean by I’d like to lead a.normal life, but I’m on the mountain wagon now”?
Answer:
Baber plans to conquer the highest peak in every country in the world. He reckons he will be able to complete the remaining 199 peaks at the rate of a continent a year. So, even though he would like to complete his mission and settle down, the attraction of the mountains is still pulling him up there.

Question 7.
The word Summit means (sum total, peak, surface)
Answer:
peak

Question 8.
List some of the European mountain peaks mentioned in the passage.
Answer:
Mt. Elberus in Russia, Mt. Daravica in Kosovo, Mt. Shikhara in Georgia, and Mt. Ararat in Turkey. ,

iv. Plants that Heal

Many of the plants that are poisonous in large quantities are useful medicinally if taken in very small quantity. Foxgloves are poisonous if eaten, but the drug digitalis is extracted from these plants, and this is used to treat people with heart diseases. The deadly Night Shades, gives belladonna which is used as a sedative and Nux Vomica tree supplies strychnine which can increase appetite.

However, both of these medicines must be taken in small doses; they are poisonous if that dose is exceeded. Before men could manufacture drugs, plants were their only source.

The Chinese were using opium from poppies and the South American Indians were chewing cocoa leaves as painkillers, long before the presence of drugs called cocaine and heroin. Now that these drugs are distilled from the plants and used at greater strengths, they have become addictive drugs causing as much distress as relief from pain. Other drugs are not as dangerous.

Quinine which helps to bring down fever, extracted ‘ from the bark of the Cinchona tree, which grows in South America, Camphor, Caster beans and cloves all give oils with medicinal uses, and these are only a few of the many plants used to ease illness. Another fungus must be included here, the Penicillium fungus, which gives penicillin, an invaluable antibiotic.

Question 1.
How are foxgloves medicinally helpful?
Answer:
Digitalis, a drug extracted from foxgloves is used to cure heart diseases.

Question 2.
The drug that is extracted from foxgloves is .
(a) belladonna.
(b) strychnine.
(c) Nux Vomica.
(d) digitalis.
Answer:
(d) digitalis.

Question 3.
What happens if belladonna and strychnine are given in small doses?
Answer:
Belladonna is a sedative and strychnine increases appetite.

Question 4.
Before man could manufacture drugs, plants were the only source of medicine. True/ False.
Answer:
True.

Question 5.
What were used as painkillers by the Chinese and the South American Indians?
Answer:
The Chinese used opium from poppies and the South American Indians used cocoa leaves, as
painkillers.

Question 6.
Which plants produce oils of medicinal value?
Answer:
Camphor, caster beans and cloves give oils of medicinal value.

Question 7.
Which fungus proves a good antibiotic?
Answer:
‘’Penicillium fungus”.

Question 8.
Match the following.

Name of the plant        Part of the plant used as medicine Illness/disease cure
 Cocoa Leaves Pain killers
Cinchona Bark Brings down fever
Caster Beans Ease illness
Poppies Seeds Pain killers

Answer:
(a) – iii (b) – iv (c) – ii

At that moment the figures began to move back towards their machines. They went inside and the low humming noise began again. One by one the machines lit up. Then the first machine rose into the air, spinning like a wheel. A second one followed it, and then a third ….

Rod felt terribly sad. The machines were leaving without him! He jumped over the low wall. “Wait!” he shouted. “Take me with you! Please!” . But as he rushed forward, a wave of hot air pushed him back and he fell to the ground When he opened his eyes, the field was empty.

Did he really see flying saucers or was it all a dream? Rod is not sure. But these days, when anyone mentions flying saucers, Rod keeps quiet. And he feels very sad, remembering the happy peaceful planet he wanted to go to.

Question 1.
What did Rod always use to laugh at?
Answer:
Rod always used to laugh at the idea of flying saucers.

Question 2.
What did Rod hear as he was getting ready to go to bed?
Answer:
Rod heard a low humming noise outside like thousands Of bees.

Question 3.
In the field at the end of the garden Rod saw some
(a) people
(b) humming bees
(c) strange objects.
Answer:
(c) strange objects.

Question 4.
From where could Rod view the mysterious objects clearly?
Answer:
From the wall at the end of his garden.

Question 5.
What was Rod sure of ?
Answer:
Rod was sure of the people being from outer space.

Question 6.
What did Rod imagine about the outer space?
Answer:
He used to say, that people from outer space would not want to come to our planet.

Question 7.
How many machines did Rod see moving?
Answer:
Rod saw three machines moving.

Question 8.
Why was Rod sad?
Answer:
Rod was sad because the machines had gone back without him.

Question 9.
Where did Rod find himself when he was pushed back?
Answer:
Rod found himself on the ground.

Question 10.
Why does Rod feel sad when there is a mention of flying saucers?
Answer:
Rod feels sad remembering the happy peaceful planet he had wanted to go.

v. Jane Goodall

Jane Goodall’s great passion for life was animals. She liad dozens of books about them. The walls of her bedroom were covered with pictures of animals, just as other girls of her age had posters of pop stars.
She used to keep animals in garden and, if she could, brought them into the house too. Usually, however, her mother caught her. “Get those animals out of here!” she used to shout. “If you must keep them, use the shed at the end of the garden!”

Most of Jane’s animals were quite small: rabbits, mice, birds- that sort of thing. But one day something quite big came her way. Jane’s mother noticed that she was spending quite a lot of time in the shed. She also noticed that food was disappearing from the house, esjtecially bread and fruit. One evening she decided to go down to the shed to see for herself.

As. she stood outside the door of the shed, she could hear Jane talking to someone inside. “She’s got a friend in there with her,” she thought. She opened the door and looked in. At first she could only sec Jane sitting on the ground. Then she made out the shape of an animal sitting beside Jane. Two huge eyes stared up at her. She nearly screamed.

It was a gorilla “Jane! Where on earth ?” she started to say. But then she remembered. A few days before, a
young gorilla had escaped from the zoo and, in spite of every effort to find it, the animal had simply vanished. “I found it wandering through the park,” Jane explained. “It seemed so lonely! I talked to it and we became friends at once. And then it followed me back here . ..

“Well, you know you can’t keep it,” her mother said. “You’d better phone the police and explain.” Not long after, the police came and also a van from the zoo. Nobody was even align with Jane when she told her story. The police knew all about Jane and her animals.

And the zoo keeper said: “I can see that Gorges ou. But we need him back at zoo! But you can come and see him as often as you like. We’ll send you a free pass!” These days Jane has almost given up collecting small animals- but you can often find her talking to her friend Gor at the zoo! –

Question 1.
What did Jane’s “mother notice?
Answer:
Jane’s mother noticed that the for,was disappearing from the house – especially bread and fruit.

Question 2.
Who was sitting with Jane in the shed?
Answer:
A young gorilla w-as sitting with Jane in the shed.

Question 3.
Where had the gorilla come from?
Answer:
The gorilla had come from the zoo.

Question 4.
Where had Jane found the gorilla?
Answer:
Jane had found the gorilla at the park:

Question 5.
Whom did the mother want Jane to inform about the gorilla?
Answer:
The mother wanted Jane to inform the police.

Question 6.
Why weren’t the police angry with Jane?
Answer:
Because the police had known all about Jane and her animals.

Question 7.
What did the zoo keeper offer Jane?
Answer:
The zoo keeper invited Jane to visit the zoo often to see the gorilla, and offered her a free pass.

Question 8.
The Gorilla belonged to the ………….
(a) zoo.
(b) park
(c) police.
Answer:
(a) zoo

Question 9.
Jane’s mother went to the shed because she wanted taind
(a) animals
(b) food
(c) Jane’s friends.
Answer:
(c) Jane’s friends.

Question 10.
Match the actions in column A with the reasons in B.

A –B
1. Jane took food from the house. — a. It was in Jane’s shed.
2. Jane began to spend a lot of time in the shed. — b. She tried to bring animals into the house.
3. Jane’s mother use to shout — c. She needed it for the gorilla at her.
4. The gorilla vanished — d. She had to tell them about the gorilla.
5. Jane phoned the police — e. She had a gorilla there.
Answer:
1 – c, 2 .e, 3 – b, 4 – a, 5 – d.

vi. Plying Saucers

Rod always used to laugh at the idea of flying saucers. “If there are people in outer space,” he used to say, “they won’t want to.-eome.here, will they?”

But that was before Rod had a very strange experience.One summer evening, just as he was getting ready to go to bed Rod heard a low humming noise outside, like thousands of bees. He looked out of his bedroom window’. In the field at the end of the garden he saw a number .of bright objects coming down. As they landed their lights went out and the field became dark. Rod decided to take a closer look from the wall at the end of his garden.

From there he could.see the mysterious objects quite clearly. There were twelve of them in all arid they were long and thin, like cnomvJus cigars. In the centre of the machines he could just make out a group of figures, all wearing space suits: They appeared to be having a meeting.

As he stood there, Rod felt sure that these men were from outer space. Their machines were the famous flying saucers. Rod also felt sure that they came from a quiet, peaceful planet, quite unlike the world he lived in. And he wanted to join them!

vii. Robert

It was a cold winter’s afternoon. Robert paused for a moment as he crossed the bridge and looked down at foe river below. There were hardly any boats on the river. Near the bridge, however, almost directly below, there was one small one, a canoe, with a boy in it. He was not even wearing many clothes, Robert noticed, He shivered and walked on.

Just then he heard a cry. Help! Help! The cry definitely came from foe river. Robert looked down. The boy was in the water and his canoe was floating away.”Help! Help!” he called again.

Robert was a good swimmer and he hesitated for only a moment. Taking off his coat, he dived into the river. The icy water almost took his breath away, but in a matter of seconds he reached the boy. “Don’t panic!” he said as he caught hold of him. “Just relax-and I’ll soon get you out of the water.”

But the boy began to struggle and shout something at him. Robert could not make out his words. “Don’t panic,” he said again and started to swim towards the bank, dragging the boy with him. But at that moment he noticed a large motor boat under the bridge.

There were several people on board, all looking in his direction. Robert decided to swim towards the boat. “Give me a hand,” he shouted as he got near the boat. He looked up into a row of faces. “It’s funny;” he thought. “They look angry.” Silently the people on the boat helped the boy aboard and wrapped him in a blanket. But they made no move to help Robert.

“Aren’t you going to pull me out too?” Robert asked.
“You!” said one of the men. Robert noticed that he was standing next to a large camera.”You! Why, we were making a film and you spoilt a whole afternoon’s work! You can stay in the water!”

Question 1.
What was the weather like?
Answer:
It was a cold weather.

Question 2.
Who was in the canoe?
Answer:
A boy was in the canoe.

Question 3.
When Robert heard the cry for help, he was
(a) still on the bridge.
(b) looking at the river.
(c) taking off his jacket.
Answer:
(b) looking at the river.

Question 4.
What did the boy do when Robert caught hold of him?
Answer:
The boy began to struggle and shout something at him.

Question 5.
The people on the boat
(a) laughed at Robert.
(b) did not speak to Robert.
(c) left Robert in the water.
Answer:
(c) left Robert in the water.

Question 6.
What had the people on the boat been doing?
Answer:
There were several people on board all staring in his direction. They were making a film.

Question 7.
Pick but the synonyms from the passage for the following words.
(a) Did not try
(b) Pulling
(c) Ruined
Answer:
(a) hesitate
(b) dragging
(c) spoiled

Question 8.
Fill in the table with appropriate information given below:

Time of Day
Time of Year
Places
People
Events

a motor boat / film people/winter / Robert / a boy / a bridge/ afternoon/ Robert savec a boy / a river/He spoilt a film.
Answer:
Time of day -Afternoon
Time of year – winter
places – A bridge, a river, a motor boat
People – Film makers, Robert, a boy.
Events – Robert saved a boy, he spoilt a film shooting.

viii. Useful Microbes

Bacteria and fungi decompose dead organisms and thus enable nutrients to go back to the soil. This prevents accumulation of dead organic matter in the soil. Therefore, these microbes are called decomposers. The bacteria and fungi act upon the dung of farm animals, straw, vegetable wastes, grass cuttings and other degradable wastes. As they rot, nitrates and other inorganic nutrients are given out into the soil, thus making it rich.

These compost and manure act as natural fertilizers. In plants, such as the legumes (beans, peas, soya bean etc), the roots have several swollen parts called nodules. Different species of the Rhizobium bacterium live in these swellings and convert nitrogen into nitrates. This process is called nitrogen fixation. This helps to make the soil rich in nitrates which are essential for the growth of plants. It takes an active part in the nitrogen cycle.

Raw sewage like faeces and urine is a health hazard. Bacteria breakdown raw sewage wastes such as faeces and urine into harmless and even useful substances. These can be used as landfills or to renovate the soil by providing nitrates and phosphates and improving its water retention capacity.

In India, China and some other countries, village communities use biogas fermenters to produce methane. Human and animal faeces and leafy waste from crops are broken down by bacteria in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic conditions) to produce methane (biogas), a valuable fuel for cooking and lighting.  Some algae are used in space flights to purify the air in spaceships.

Alcohol and alcoholic drinks are made by fermentation using yeast. Yeast is used to ferment sugars in grapes to make wine. Sugars in rice and barley are fermented to produce beer.

Yeast is also added to dough to.produce carbon-di-oxide which makes the dough rise. The bread or cake made from the dough becomes soft and fluffy due to the gas. So yeast is used in bakeries to make bread and cake.

Question 1.
Name various natural fertilizers.
Answer:
The dung of farm animals, straw, vegetable wastes, grass cuttings and other degradable wastes are some of the natural fertilizers.

2. Which is the bacterium that lives in the swollen parts of legumes?
Ans.
Rhizobium bacterium.

Question 3.
The phrase’anaerobic conditions’in the passage means
(a) absence of aerobics.
(b) absence of oxygen.
(c) excess of oxygen.
Answer:
(b) absence of oxygen.

Question 4.
What is the component used for fermentation?
Answer:
Yeast is the component used for fermentation.

Question 5.
What are nodules?
Answer:
In plants, such as the legumes (beans, peas, soya etc) the roots have several swollen parts called “Nodules”. Rhizobium bacterium live in these and convert nitnogen into nitrates.

Question 6.
Name any two degradable wastes.
Answer:
The dung of farm animals and straw.

Question 7.
How is biogas produced? Why is biogas a valuable fuel?
Answer:
Human and animal wastes and leafy waste from crops are broken down by bacteria in the absence of oxygen to produce methane or biogas. It is a valuable fuel for cooking and lighting.

Question 8.
Explain the process of nitrogen fixation?
Answer:
Different species of the Rhizobium bacterium live in nodules, the swellings in the roots of legumes and convert nitrogen into nitrates. This process is called nitrogen fixation.

Question 9.
How is raw sewage, a health hazard turned into a harmless and useful substance?
Answer:
Raw sewage like feces and urine is a health hazard. Bacteria breakdown these raw sewage wastes into harmless and even useful substances.

Question 10.
How does a bread or cake turn soft?
Answer:
Yeast is added to the dough to produce carbon dioxide which makes the dough rise. Bread or cake made from the dough becomes soft and fluffy due to the gas.

ix. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

The uncanny thing about Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, a woman described as “the supremely romantic figure of the freedom struggle”, is how relevant her mission seems today – a hundred years after she was bom. Whether it is her free-thinking feminism, her egalitarian politics, hef driving interest in theatre, her belief in the cooperative movement or Indian handicrafts, she was one of that rare breed of people whose ideas seem relevant even now.

Kamaladevi was a feminist long before feminism became fashionable. She critiqued what she saw as the excesses of Western feminism that cast women in eternal victim roles and pitted them against men, instead of patriarchal institutions: Bom into a liberal Saraswat Brahmin family in Mangalore, she inherited her mother’s independent streak. Her exposure to politics came from the icons of the freedom struggle like Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Ranade and Annie Besant, who were friends of .her family.

After her meeting with the Margaret Cousins, a key figure in the Suffragist movement in the West, Kamaladevi joined active politics and became the first woman to contest a seat in the Legislative Assembly (in 1926, from the Madras State Provincial Legislature). She headed the All India Women’s Conference for several years, campaigning for legislative changes to further women’s rights.

She pressed for a uniform civil code as a means to promote gender justice and worked hard for the prevention of child marriage. Many of her ideas that seemed radical are accepted as normal today, like the right to maternity leave and child care and the need to consider women’s unpaid household labour, an economic activity.

Kamaladevi’s swadeshi convictions were also largely fuelled by her feminist agenda. She linked the Western system of mass production as a deathblow to women who formed the bulk of the work force in unorganised sectors such as traditional crafts. Similarly, according to her, traditional and indigenous knowledge, which passed on from mother to daughter (like herbal cures), was also threatened by Western systems of medicine.

Her study on the abject situation of women in the mining industry led to her deep association with labour unions. She traced the crucial link between class and gender in a 1948 report of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. It was subtitled ‘The Basis of Feminism’.

Question 1.
Kamaladevi is remembered even today because,
(a) she was a romantic figure of the freedom struggle.
(b) her ideas are still relevant.
(c) she believed in egalitarian politics. .
Answer:
(b) her ideas are still relevant.

Question 2.
Kamaladevi was a feminist long before feminism became fashionable. True/ False.
Answer:
True.

3. Mention the names of any two freedom fighters, who initiated her to politics.
Answer:
Gopala Krishna Gokhale and Ranade.

4. Why did Kamaladevi demand for a uniform civil code?
Answer:
Kamaladevi demanded for a uniform civil code to promote gender justice and equality.

Question 5.
She considered system of mass production as a deathblow to traditional crafts.
Answer:
Western.

Question 6.
Match suitable words to the word ‘union’ and use in sentences of your own. (labourers, judge, trade, student, food)
Answer:
(a) Labourers : Suresh is the union leader of the transport labourers.
(b) Trade : The trade union failed to negotiate with the Government.
(c) Student: A union of students went to the Principal and complained about their science teacher.

Question  7.
Refer to a dictionary and find the meaning of the word ‘death blow’ .
Answer:
Death blow means an event that destroys or puts an end to something.

Question  8.
Choose a synonym from the passage for the word’swadeshi’.
Answer:
Traditional is a synonym for swadeshi, used in the passage.

Question  9.
Why did Kamaladevi have a deep association with labour unions?
Answer:
Because of her study on the abject situation of women working in the mining industry, it led to her deep association with labour unions.

x. Yakshagana

In South India, particularly in Karnataka, there is one form of dance theatre that defies most rules of popular art, perhaps even societal norms; where the hero is just one among many actors on stage; where the villain looks so much grander and has so much more fun that he ends up overshadowing the hero.

This is where no two performances, no two series of dialogue, are ever the same, and shows are typically debated for days after the performance; where an actor can become so famous that he (all roles are played by men) is identified by his role, and where the entangled web of the caste system is surprisingly absent. We call this Yakshagana.

Karnataka has full claim to this art form, which originated in its villages, in open grounds or under ‘ shoddily put-up canvas tents covering dirty mats and creaky folding chairs. Indeed, Yakshagana is recognised as one of the traditional art forms of Karnataka, just like the Odissi dance of Odhisha or the Mohiniattam in Kerala.

Apart from the bhajans and religious discourses, Yakshagana, literally meaning the song of the Yakshas, or demi-gods, offered a fun way to learn about Hindu epics and ’ their thousand and more stories. Yakshagana is a mix of folk theatre, dance, theatre and music, a pantomime of sorts. Today, it constitutes an art form that thrives amidst the general decline of traditional arts elsewhere in India and the region at large.

Interestingly, Yakshagana exists with an almost complete lack of caste and its trappings. For instance,
there is no preference whatsoever given to artists due to their castes, says Govinda Prasad, an amateur artist for nearly 20 years and a doctor in Dakshina Kannada district.

Between managing his family estate and his medical practice, he finds time to do about ten performances in a year. ‘The money is not important to me, I do it for the passion,’ he says. ‘There may be individual animosity among the artists in some cases, but caste never benefits or hinders a person from getting a particular role.’ However, almost all artists, professional or otherwise, are usually Hindu.

In addition, all are men, including those playing the female characters. In a society of male dominance, it was not considered respectable for a woman to be seen on stage before an audience, and this tradition has continued.

At the very core of Yakshagana is the himmela or back ground music. This entourage of musicians includes a narrator, singers (bhagawatha) and musicians playing the chande and maddale drums, and the harmonium. The mummela is a team of actors who interpret and act out the songs from a section of a particular myth.

Their performance, usually touching on just one main story and a few sub-stories, is called the prasanga. Performances usually begin just after dusk with elaborate beating of drums in what is called the peetike, during which the narrator sets the background to the play with songs and music, before the actors come on stage to roar and dance until dawn.

Question 1.
In Yakshagana, the one who looks grander than others is the
(a) hero
(b) villain.
(c) bhagawatha.
Answer:
(b) villain.

Question  2.
All roles in Yakshagana are played by women. (True / False)
Answer:
False.

Question 3.
What system is absent in Yakshagana?
Answer:
Caste system is absent in Yakshagana.

Question  4.
What does ‘mohiniattam’ mentioned in the passage, refer to?
Answer:
It refers to a dance form of Kerala.

Question  5.
What does the word ‘Yaksha’ literally mean?
Answer:
The word Yaksha literally means demi-Gods.

Question  6.
Besides being an amateur Yakshagana artist, Govinda Prasad is
(a) a teacher.
(b) a mechanic.
(c) a‘doctor.
Answer:
(c) a doctor.

Question  7.
In Govinda Prasad’s view, caste a person from getting a particular role in
Yakshagana.
(a) benefits
(b) hinders
(c) neither benefits nor hinders
Answer:
(c) neither benefits nor hinders

Question 8.
What does the word ‘myth’ mean? Refer to a dictionary and find out.
Answer:
Myth means a traditional story from ancient times, to explain natural events or early history of people.

Question 9.
Match the words in column A with their synonyms in B.
A — B
1. defy — a. develop
2. typical — b. specific
3. thrive —  c. characteristic
4. particular — d. deny
Answer:
1 – d, 2 – c, 3 – a, 4 – b.

Question 10.
Choose the correct noun form of the verb.

perform showed add
Perform Performed show showing add added
performance show addition

Answer:
performance, show, addition.

1st PUC English Textbook Answers 

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