## Karnataka 1st PUC Economics Question Bank Chapter 4 Presentation of Data

### 1st PUC Economics Presentation of Data TextBook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
In qualitative classification, classification is done on the basis of
(a) Attributes like physical status, nationality, etc.
(b) Characteristics like age, height, production, income, etc.
(c) Time such as hours, days, weeks, months, etc.
(d) Places like a village, town, block, district, state, nation, etc.
(a) Attributes like physical status, nationality, etc. Question 2.
A histogram is a
(a) One-dimensional diagram
(b) Three-dimensional diagram
(c) Two-dimensional diagram
(d) Four-dimensional diagram
(c) Two-dimensional diagram

Question 3.
A frequency polygon is used in the presentation of
(a) Ungrouped data
(b) Both types of data
(c) Grouped data
(d) None of these
(c) Grouped data

Question 4.
Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the
(a) Mean
(b) Median
(c) Mode
(d) All of the above
(c) Mode Question 5.
Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the
(a) Mode
(b) Median
(c) Mean
(d) None of the above
(b) Median

II. Fill in the blanks

Question 1.
In the tabular presentation, data is presented in……………..
Rows and columns

Question 2.
An arithmetic line graph is also called …………….
Time series graph

Question 3.
Component bar diagrams are also called ………………
Sub bar diagrams Question 4.
Body of the table contains …………
Actual data

III. Answer the following questions in a word/sentence

Question 1.
What do you mean by the textual presentation of data?
When the data is presented within the text or in paragraphs it is called the textual presentation of data.

Question 2.
What do you mean by frequency polygon?
It is a plane bounded by straight lines usually four or more lines.

Question 3.
What is a caption?
At the top of each column in a table, a column designation is given to explain the figures of the column and it is called a caption.

Question 4.
What do you mean by stubs?
Stubs refer to the designations given to the rows. They are also known as row headings. Question 1.
HR What are the four kinds of classifications used in tabulation?
The four kinds of classifications used in tabulation are as follows:
(a) Qualitative classification
(b) Quantitative classification
(c) Temporal classification
(d) Spatial classification.

Question 2.
What is quantitative classification? Give an example.
Quantitative classification is that classification where certain characteristics are measured quantitatively. For example, age, height, production, income, etc.

Question 3.
Write the meaning of temporal classification with an example.
Temporal classification is one in which the classification of data is done on the basis of time. Example: hours, days, weeks, months, years, decades, etc.

Question 4.
What is spatial classification?
When the classification is done on the basis of place, it is called spatial classification. Examples, village, block, district, state, country, continent, etc.

Question 5.
Whether the data represented by a component bar diagram, can also be represented by a pie chart? Explain.
A pie diagram is also a component diagram, but unlike a bar diagram, here it is a circle whose area is proportionally divided among the components it represents. So the data represented by a component bar diagram can also be represented by a pie chart. Question 6.
The only requirement being that absolute values of the components have to convert into percentages before they can be used for a pie diagram.
The frequency curve is obtained by drawing a smooth freehand curve passing through the points of the frequency polygon as closely as possible. It may not necessarily pass through all the points of the frequency polygon but it passes through them as closely as possible.

Question 7.
How do you obtain an arithmetic line graph?
In an arithmetic line graph, time is plotted along the x-axis and the value of the variable is measured on the y-axis. The Aline graph is constructed by joining the plotted points to get the arithmetic line graph. It helps in understanding the trend, periodicity, etc., in long-term time-series data.

Question 8.
What kind of diagrams are more effective in presenting the following?
(a) Monthly rainfall in a year.
(b) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion.
(a) For the monthly rainfall in a year, a simple bar graph can be used to represent in the diagram.
(b) For the composition of the population of Delhi by religion, a component bar diagram or pie chart can be used to represent the data.

Question 1.
Draw a table and figure out its parts. Question 2.
Draw a multiple bar diagram with the help of the following data.
Literacy rate in the major states of India (in percentage).   Question 3.
Draw a pie chart using the following data.
Distribution of Indian population by their working status (in crores).

 Status Population Marginal workers 9 Main workers 31 Non-workers 62  Question 1.
What is tabulation? What are the parts of a table? Explain. (S – 2018)
When data is represented in rows and columns, it is called tabulation. To construct a table, it is important to know the different components of a good statistical table. When all the components are put together systematically, they form a table.

Tabulation can be done using one way. two way or three-way classification depending upon the number of characteristics involved. A good table should have the following parts:
(a) Table number: The table number is given to a table for identification purposes. If more than one table is presented, it is the table number that distinguishes one table from another. It is given at the top or at the beginning of the title of the table.

(b) Title: The title of the table gives about the contents of the table. It has to be very clear, brief, and carefully worded, so information interpretations made from the table are clear and free from any confusion.

(c) Captions: These are the column headings given as designations to explain the figures of the column.

(d) Stubs: These are headings given to row s of the table. The designations of the row-s are also called stubs or stub items and the left column is known as the stub column. (e) Body of the table: It is the main part and it contains the actual data. The location of anyone data in the table is fixed and determined by the row and column of the table.

(f) Headnote/Unit of measurement: The units of measurement of the figures in the table should always be stated along with the title. If figures are large, they should be rounded off and the method of rounding should be indicated.

(g) Source: It is a brief statement or phrase indicating the source of data presented in the table. If more than one source is there, all the sources are to be mentioned.

(h) Note: It is the last part of the table. It explains the specific feature of the data content of the table which is not self-explanatory and has not been explained earlier.

Question 2.
What is a component bar diagram? Draw a component bar diagram with the help of the following table. (Board Paper) Component bar diagrams or charts also called subdiagrams, are very useful in comparing the sizes of different component parts and also for throwing light on the relationship among these integral parts.  Question 3.
Explain the method of constructing a frequency polygon with an example.
A frequency polygon is a plane bounded by straight lines, usually four or more lines. A frequency polygon is an alternative to the histogram and is also derived from the histogram itself.

A frequency polygon can be fitted to a histogram for studying the shape, of the curve. The simplest method of drawing a frequency polygon is to join the -midpoints of the topside of the consecutive rectangles of the histogram. It leaves us with the two ends away from the baseline, denying the calculation of the area under the curve. The solution is to join the two endpoints thus obtained to the baseline at the mid values of the two classes with zero frequency immediately at each end of the distribution.

A frequency polygon is the most common method of presenting grouped frequency distribution. Both class boundaries and class marks can be used along the X-axis, the distances between two consecutive class marks are proportional to the width of the class intervals. Plotting of data becomes easier if the class marks fall on the heavy lines of the graph sheet.

No matter whether class boundaries or midpoints are used in the X-axis, frequencies are always plotted against the midpoint of class intervals. When all the points have been plotted in the graph, they are carefully jointed by a series of short straight lines.

 Daily Earning No. of Wage Earners 45 – 49 2 50 – 54 3 60 – 64 5 65 – 69 3 70 – 74 6 75 – 79 7 80 – 84 12 85 – 89 13 90 – 94 9 95 – 99 7 100 – 106 4 105 – 109 4 109 – 114 2 115 – 119 3 Question 4.
Explain ogive with proper diagrams.
Ogive is also called cumulative frequency curve. As there are two types of cumulative frequencies, for example, ‘less than’ type and ‘more than’ type, accordingly there are two ogives for any grouped frequency distribution data. Here in the place of simple frequencies as in the case of frequency polygon, cumulative frequencies are plotted along Y-axis against class limits of the frequency distribution. For ‘less than’ ogives the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective upper limits of the class intervals whereas for more than ogives the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective lower limits of the class interval.

An interesting characteristic of the two ogives together is that their intersection point gives the median of the frequency distribution. The following graph represents the ogives. As the shapes of the two ogives suggest, ‘less than ogive is never decreasing and ‘more than’ ogive is never increasing.  Question 5.
Draw an arithmetic line graph using the following data.
Value of import and export of India (in 100 crores).  VII. Project-Oriented question

Question 1.
On the basis of data, you have collected regarding the participation of women in your locality in the below-mentioned categories construct a pie chart.
(a) Self-employed.
(b) Regular salaried employees.
(c) Casual wage laborers.
As per the data collected regarding the participation of women in our locality. the following table is generated’

 Categories Participation Self-employed 50 Regular salaried 20 Casual laborers 30 Question 1.
Bar diagram is a
(a) One-dimensional diagram
(b) Two-dimensional diagram
(c) Diagram with no dimension
(d) None of the above
(a) One-dimensional diagram Question 2.
Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the
(a) Mean
(b) Mode
(c) Median
(d) None of these
(b) Mode

Question 3.
Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the
(a) Mode
(b) Mean
(c) Median
(d) None of these
(c) Median

Question 4.
Data represented through arithmetic line graph help in understanding
(a) Long-term trend
(b) Cychicity in data
(c) Seasonality in data
(d) All of them
(a) Long-term trend

Question 5.
State whether the following statements are True or False.
(a) Width of bars in a bar diagram need not be equal. (True)
(b) Width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal. (True)
(c) Histogram can only be formed with the continuous classification of data. (True)
(d) Histogram and column diagram arc the same method of presentation of data. (False)
(e) Mode of a frequency distribution can be known graphically with the help of a histogram. (True)
(f) Median of a frequency distribution cannot be known from the ogives. (False)

Question 6.
How does the procedure of drawing a histogram differ when class intervals are unequal in corn parasol to equal class intervals iii a frequency table?
If the class intervals are of equal width. which they generally are, the area of the rectangles are proportional to their respective frequencies. When the intervals are equal. that is. when all rectangles have the same base, the area can conveniently be represented by the frequency of any interval for purposes of comparison.

When class intervals are unequal, the heights of rectangles are to be adjusted to yield comparable measurements, Here, the frequency density is considered instead of absolute frequency

For example, when tabulating deaths by age at death, it would be er meaningful as e1l as useful to have very shortage intervals at the beginning when death rates are even high compared to deaths at most other higher age segments of the population

Question 7.
The Indian Sugar Mills Association reported that sugar production during the first fortnight of December 2001 was about 3,87,000 tonnes as against 3,78,000 tonnes during the same fortnight the previous year (2000). The off-take of sugar from factories during the first fortnight of December 2001 was 2,83,000 tonnes for internal consumption and 41,000 tonnes for exports as against 1,54,000 tonnes for internal consumption and nil for exports during the same fortnight in 2000. (a) Present the data in tabular form.
(b) Suppose you were to present these data in a diagrammatic form which of the diagrams would you use and why?
(a) Sugar production and consumption (in tones): (b) To represent the above data diagrammatically, a compound bar graph can be used. This is because a compound bar diagram shows the bar and its subdivisions into two or more. components. A compound bar diagram also contains different components. In the above example, production, consumption, and exports can be represented in a vertical compound bar graph by adding them respectively.

Question 8.
What is a histogram?
It is a two-dimensional diagram. It is a set of rectangles with the base as the intervals between class boundaries (X-axis) and with areas proportional to the class frequency.

Question 9.
What is a frequency curve?